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PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression
The data indicate that the immunoregulatory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is operative during a persistent viral infection in humans, and define a reversible defect in HIV-specific T-cell function. Expand
Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia.
In individuals who control viremia in the absence of antiviral therapy, polyclonal, persistent, and vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses were present, resulting in the elaboration of interferon-gamma and antiviral beta chemokines. Expand
Hepatitis C virus infection.
The institution of blood-screening measures in developed countries has decreased the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis to a negligible level, but new cases continue to occur mainly as a result of injection-drug use and, to a lesser degree, through other means of percutaneous or mucous-membrane exposure. Expand
Latent infection of CD4+ T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent formExpand
HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission
Data show that the process of accumulation of escape mutations within HIV is not inevitable, and complex epitope- and residue-specific selection forces, including CTL-mediated positive selection pressure and virus-mediated purifying selection, operate in tandem to shape HIV evolution at the population level. Expand
HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes
It is found that CTLs inefficiently lysed primary cells infected with HIV-1 if the viral nef gene product was expressed and Nef protected infected cells by reducing the epitope density on their surface. Expand
Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1
The various epistatic effects observed here for common, distinct KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Bw4 combinations are unprecedented with regard to any pair of genetic loci in human disease, and indicate that NK cells may have a critical role in the natural history of HIV infection. Expand
CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load
A comprehensive analysis of the 160 dominant CD8+ T-cell responses in 578 untreated HIV-infected individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa suggested the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking demonstrable biological impact in chronic HIV infection. Expand
Analysis of Successful Immune Responses in Persons Infected with Hepatitis C Virus
A strong and persistent CTL response in resolving acute HCV infection is demonstrated, and rationale to explore immune augmentation as a therapeutic intervention in chronic HCv infection is provided. Expand
Sequence and Structural Convergence of Broad and Potent HIV Antibodies That Mimic CD4 Binding
Anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies with similar specificities and modes of binding were found in multiple HIV-infected individuals, and cloned 576 new HIV antibodies from four unrelated individuals to determine whether they are part of a larger group of related molecules. Expand