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AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1
Autophagy is a process by which components of the cell are degraded to maintain essential activity and viability in response to nutrient limitation. Extensive genetic studies have shown that theExpand
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Phosphorylation of ULK1 (hATG1) by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Connects Energy Sensing to Mitophagy
A protein kinase links energy stores to control of autophagy. Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved sensor of intracellular energy activated in response to lowExpand
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Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview.
Considerable efforts have been made since the 1950s to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of metformin, a potent antihyperglycaemic agent now recommended as theExpand
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Metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice independently of the LKB1/AMPK pathway via a decrease in hepatic energy state.
Metformin is widely used to treat hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Recently the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK) pathway was proposed to mediate the action of metforminExpand
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Metformin: from mechanisms of action to therapies.
Metformin is currently the first-line drug treatment for type 2 diabetes. Besides its glucose-lowering effect, there is interest in actions of the drug of potential relevance to cardiovascularExpand
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AMP-Activated Protein Kinase–Deficient Mice Are Resistant to the Metabolic Effects of Resveratrol
OBJECTIVE Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound that is found in grapes and red wine, increases metabolic rate, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial biogenesis, and physical endurance andExpand
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Mechanism of Action of A-769662, a Valuable Tool for Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase*
We have studied the mechanism of A-769662, a new activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Unlike other pharmacological activators, it directly activates native rat AMPK by mimicking bothExpand
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AMPK is essential for energy homeostasis regulation and glucose sensing by POMC and AgRP neurons.
Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to act as a key sensing mechanism, responding to hormones and nutrients in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, theExpand
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Systemic treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin selectively impairs p53-deficient tumor cell growth.
The effect of the antidiabetic drug metformin on tumor growth was investigated using the paired isogenic colon cancer cell lines HCT116 p53(+/+) and HCT116 p53(-/-). Treatment with metforminExpand
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Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signaling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP
Glucose production by the liver is essential for providing a substrate for the brain during fasting. The inability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose output is a major aetiological factor in theExpand
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