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The Ctenophore Genome and the Evolutionary Origins of Neural Systems
The draft genome of Pleurobrachia bachei, Pacific sea gooseberry, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes, are presented, and show that they are remarkably distinct from other animal genomes in their content of neurogenic, immune and developmental genes.
The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity
The first register of the marine species of the world is compiled and it is estimated that between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely.
Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla.
The nesting of the pterobranchs within the enteropneusts dramatically alters the view of the evolution of the chordate body plan and suggests that the ancestral deuterostome more closely resembled a mobile worm-like enteropNEust than a sessile colonial pterOBranch.
Urochordates are monophyletic within the deuterostomes.
A detailed phylogenetic analysis of urochordates based on comparisons of 10 new u rochordate 18S ribosomal DNA sequences with other uroChordate sequences in GenBank suggests strongly that uro chordates form a monophyletic clade within the deuterostomes.
Evaluating hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny and chordate evolution with new LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA data.
The rRNA-gene analysis refutes most of these hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny that were constructed from morphological, embryological, and paleontological evidence and advocates a rethinking of chordate and vertebrate origins.
The origin and evolution of animal appendages.
It appears more likely that ectodermal Dll/Dlx expression along proximodistal axes originated once in a common ancestor and has been used subsequently to pattern body wall outgrowths in a variety of organisms.
Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives
  • B. Swalla, A. Smith
  • Biology, Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
  • 27 April 2008
Molecular phylogenies, larval morphology and the adult heart/kidney complex all support echinoderms and hemichordates as a sister grouping (Ambulacraria), andGene network data suggest that the ancestral deuterostome ancestor had an anterior–posterior body axis specified by Hox and Wnt genes, and was bilaterally symmetrical with left–right asymmetry determined by expression of nodal.
Molecular phylogeny of the protochordates: chordate evolution
It is stated that members of the Tunicata exhibit a unique adult body plan and should be considered a separate phylum rather than a subphylum of Chordata, suggesting that they are highly divergent from the Cephalochordata and Vertebrata.
Coloniality has evolved once in Stolidobranch Ascidians.
Results suggest that the ancestor of the Stolidobranchia was solitary and that coloniality has evolved only once within this clade of ascidians, and styelids and pyurids are separated into monophyletic groups by ML and Bayesian analyses.
Molecular phylogeny of hemichordata, with updated status of deep-sea enteropneusts.
Results indicate that colonial pterobranchs may have evolved from a solitary acorn worm-like hemichordate ancestor, and recognition of these deep-sea lineages as distinct families calls into question features used in hemichordsate taxonomy.