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Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans
This work uses a new observer-independent method to relate the degree of damage within a specific prefrontal region to performance on a stop-signal task that is sensitive to the neurodevelopmental aspects of stopping behavior and to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as its amelioration by methylphenidate. Expand
Choosing between Small, Likely Rewards and Large, Unlikely Rewards Activates Inferior and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex
The results suggest that decision making recruits neural activity from multiple regions of the inferior PFC that receive information from a diverse set of cortical and limbic inputs, and that the contribution of the orbitofrontal regions may involve processing changes in reward-related information. Expand
Grand challenges in global mental health
A consortium of researchers, advocates and clinicians announces here research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness around the world, and calls for urgent action andExpand
Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson's disease as a function of dopaminergic medication and task demands.
DA-ergic medication improves or impairs cognitive performance depending on the nature of the task and the basal level of DA function in underlying cortico-striatal circuitry, which is relatively spared of DA loss in PD. Expand
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): a factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers.
The CANTAB battery, which is based on tests used to identify the neural substrates of learning and memory in non-human primates, has now been extensively used in the assessment of various forms of dementia and also validated on patients with neurosurgical lesions of the frontal and temporal lobes. Expand
Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man
Patients with unilateral or bilateral frontal lobe excisions were compared with age and IQ matched controls on a computerized battery of tests of spatial working memory and planning, revealing an impairment of higher cognitive functioning following frontal lobe damage. Expand
Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy
Society must respond to the growing demand for cognitive enhancement by rejecting the idea that 'enhancement' is a dirty word, argue Henry Greely and colleagues. Expand
Emotional bias and inhibitory control processes in mania and depression.
Observed impairments on tests of memory and planning suggest a global pathology for mania consistent with previous profiles for this disorder and similar to established profiles for depression. Expand
The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers
It is proposed that neurocognitive indices of inhibitory functions may represent a useful heuristic in the search for endophenotypes in OCD, and that failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibitory processes appear to underlie many of the symptoms and neuroc cognitive findings. Expand
Methylphenidate Enhances Working Memory by Modulating Discrete Frontal and Parietal Lobe Regions in the Human Brain
Results show that the methylphenidate-induced improvements in working memory performance occur with task-related reductions in rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, to be the first demonstration of a localization of a drug-induced improvement in SWM performance in humans. Expand