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Modeling elastic properties in finite-element analysis: how much precision is needed to produce an accurate model?
The influence of elastic properties on finite-element analysis was investigated using a finite-element model of a Macaca fascicularis skull. Four finite-element analyses were performed in which theExpand
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Origin of human bipedalism: The knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited.
Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipedalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion fromExpand
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Early Hominin Foot Morphology Based on 1.5-Million-Year-Old Footprints from Ileret, Kenya
Hominin footprints offer evidence about gait and foot shape, but their scarcity, combined with an inadequate hominin fossil record, hampers research on the evolution of the human gait. Here, weExpand
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Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya
The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeologicalExpand
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Early hominin limb proportions.
Recent analyses and new fossil discoveries suggest that the evolution of hominin limb length proportions is complex, with evolutionary reversals and a decoupling of proportions within and betweenExpand
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Human evolution: taxonomy and paleobiology
This review begins by setting out the context and the scope of human evolution. Several classes of evidence, morphological, molecular, and genetic, support a particularly close relationship betweenExpand
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Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.
Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, anExpand
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Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor
Bipedalism has traditionally been regarded as the fundamental adaptation that sets hominids apart from other primates. Fossil evidence demonstrates that by 4.1 million years ago, and perhaps earlier,Expand
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The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus
The African Plio-Pleistocene hominins known as australopiths evolved a distinctive craniofacial morphology that traditionally has been viewed as a dietary adaptation for feeding on either small, hardExpand
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Finite element analysis in functional morphology.
This article reviews the fundamental principles of the finite element method and the three basic steps (model creation, solution, and validation and interpretation) involved in using it to examine structural mechanics. Expand
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