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Methods of in vitro toxicology.
TLDR
This paper critically reviews the entire process of risk assessment by in vitro toxicology, encompassing ongoing and future developments, with major emphasis on cytotoxicity, cellular responses, toxicokinetics, modelling, metabolism, cancer-related endpoints, developmental toxicity, prediction of allergenicity, and finally, development and application of biomarkers. Expand
The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay): a European review.
TLDR
The development of the SCGE assay, existing protocols for the detection and analysis of comets, the relevant underlying principles determining the behaviour of DNA, and the potential applications of the technique are reviewed. Expand
Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients.
TLDR
The prebiotic concept as induced by a synbiotic preparation-oligofructose-enriched inulin + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (BB12)-is able to reduce the risk of colon cancer in humans. Expand
Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer.
TLDR
Some of the newer studies showed that short-lived metabolite mixtures isolated from milk that was fermented with strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are more effective in deactivating etiologic risk factors of colon carcinogenesis than are cellular components of microorganisms. Expand
Lactobacillus- and bifidobacterium-mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats.
TLDR
These studies show that most, but not all, LAB tested could strongly inhibit genotoxicity in the GI tract of the rat and that viable LAB organisms are required for the protective effect in vivo. Expand
Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods.
TLDR
The hypothesis that carotenoid containing plant products exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to DNA in humans is supported. Expand
Iron-overload induces oxidative DNA damage in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 clone 19A.
TLDR
Iron is taken up by human colon cells and participates in the induction of oxidative DNA damage, which means that iron or its capacity to catalyse ROS-formation, is an important colon cancer risk factor. Expand
Potential of short chain fatty acids to modulate the induction of DNA damage and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration by oxidative stress in isolated rat distal colon cells.
TLDR
The results on antigenotoxicity coupled with the findings on [Ca2+]i homeostasis indicate that molecular effects on the energy system render these non-transformed, freshly isolated colon cells to be less susceptible to H2O2. Expand
Butyrate may enhance toxicological defence in primary, adenoma and tumor human colon cells by favourably modulating expression of glutathione S-transferases genes, an approach in nutrigenomics.
TLDR
The gene expression of drug metabolism genes in primary human colon tissue, premalignant LT97 adenoma and HT29 tumor cells cultured in an appropriate medium was investigated and it was concluded that low GST expression levels were favourably altered by butyrate. Expand
Modulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes by anticarcinogens -- focus on glutathione S-transferases and their role as targets of dietary chemoprevention in colorectal carcinogenesis.
TLDR
It will be useful to determine GSTs during dietary intervention studies to enhance the understanding of this protective mechanism, as it has not been demonstrated in humans that this mechanism is associated with cancer prevention. Expand
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