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Validity of the Executive Function Theory of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review
TLDR
Difficulties with EF appear to be one important component of the complex neuropsychology of ADHD, and moderate effect sizes and lack of universality of EF deficits among individuals with ADHD suggest that EF weaknesses are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause all cases of ADHD.
Executive functions and developmental psychopathology.
TLDR
It is revealed that EF deficits are consistently found in both ADHD and autism but not in CD (without ADHD) or in TS, and both the severity and profile of EF deficits appears to differ across ADHD and Autism.
From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders
TLDR
This paper describes how a multiple cognitive deficit model of developmental disorders evolved out of attempts to understand two comorbidities, those between dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and between dysLexia and speech sound disorder (SSD).
Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic individuals: relationship to theory of mind.
TLDR
A group of high-functioning autistic individuals was compared to a clinical control group matched on VIQ, age, sex and SES, and the relationship of executive function and theory of mind deficits to each other, and their primacy to autism are discussed.
A normative‐developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children
Normative‐developmental performance on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. Executive function was defined as goal‐directed behavior, including planning, organized search, and
Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes.
TLDR
The DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder.
Intact and impaired memory functions in autism.
TLDR
The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory.
Neuropsychological Analyses of Comorbidity Between Reading Disability and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: In Search of the Common Deficit
TLDR
The group with comorbid RD and ADHD exhibited the combination of the deficits in the RD-only and ADHD-only groups, providing evidence against the phenocopy and cognitive subtype hypotheses as explanations for the co-occurrence ofRD and ADHD.
Processing Speed Deficits in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability
TLDR
The results suggest that a general PS deficit exists in both clinical groups compared to controls, although children with RD demonstrate greater PS deficits than children with ADHD.
The neuropsychology of Down syndrome: evidence for hippocampal dysfunction.
TLDR
The main finding was a significant Group x Domain interaction effect indicating differential hippocampal dysfunction in the group with DS, and both composites contributed unique variance to the prediction of MA and adaptive behavior in that group.
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