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The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.
TLDR
It is suggested that myokines may be involved in mediating the health-beneficial effects of exercise and that these in particular are involved in the protection against chronic diseases associated with low-grade inflammation such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Expand
IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin.
TLDR
These studies in human liver cell cultures, mice, and human volunteers indicate that IL-6 is the necessary and sufficient cytokine for the induction of hepcidin during inflammation and that the IL- 6-hepcid in axis is responsible for the hypoferremia of inflammation. Expand
Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise.
TLDR
The epidemiological distinction between the generic term "physical activity" and the specific category of "exercise", which implies activity for a specific purpose such as improvement of physical condition or competition is recognised. Expand
Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6.
TLDR
This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease. Expand
Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation.
TLDR
Con considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the immune system has a role is of importance, and the interactions between exercise and infectious diseases as well as exercise and neoplasia within the context of both aging and nutrition are addressed. Expand
IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans.
TLDR
IL-6 induces an increase in cortisol and, consequently, in neutrocytosis and late lymphopenia to the same magnitude and with the same kinetics as during exercise, suggesting that muscle-derived IL-6 has a central role in exercise-induced leukocyte trafficking. Expand
Pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans
TLDR
Strenuous exercise induces an increase in the pro‐inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL‐1β and a dramatic increases in the inflammation responsive cytokine IL‐6, which is balanced by the release of cytokine inhibitors (IL‐1ra, sT NF‐r1 and sTNF‐r2) and the anti‐inflammatoryocyte IL‐10. Expand
Gut Microbiota in Human Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Differs from Non-Diabetic Adults
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota and the level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota. Expand
Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ
TLDR
The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. Expand
Muscle‐derived interleukin‐6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles
TLDR
It appears that intramuscular IL‐6 is stimulated by complex signaling cascades initiated by both calcium (Ca2+) ‐dependent and ‐independent stimuli, and it also seems likely that skeletal muscle produces IL‐ 6 to aid in maintaining metabolic homeostasis during periods of altered metabolic demand such as muscular exercise or insulin stimulation. Expand
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