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Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.
In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths ofExpand
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Survey of the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses: amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site as a marker of pathogenicity potential.
The deduced amino acid sequence at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site of 76 avian influenza (AI) viruses, subtypes H5 and H7, was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction andExpand
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Pathogenicity of West Nile virus in chickens.
In the fall of 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere during an outbreak of neurologic disease in humans, horses, and wild and zoo birds in theExpand
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Ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza in North and South America.
Wild waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses. Surveillance studies in waterfowl and shorebirds in North America show that influenza A viruses areExpand
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An outbreak of duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) in Illinois.
Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was diagnosed in an outbreak of the disease in a resident population of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) on a privately owned multispecies game bird productionExpand
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Immunologic effects of low levels of ochratoxin A in ovo: utilization of a chicken embryo model.
Ochratoxin A (OA) was administered to 13-day-old chicken embryos via the chorioallantoic membrane. The 7-day LD50 value (day 20 incubation) of OA was calculated at 7.9 micrograms of OA.Expand
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Natural and experimental infection of turkeys with avian paramyxovirus-7.
Avian paramyxovirus-7 was isolated from a natural outbreak of respiratory tract disease in male and female commercial turkey breeder flocks. The disease spread readily between different housingExpand
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Antibiotic-induced Immunosuppression and Levamisole-induced Immunopotentiation in Turkeys
SUMMARY The effects of antibiotics and levamisole on the immune responses of turkeys were evaluated. Turkeys which received three successive antibiotic treatments - preincubation egg-dipping in aExpand
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Zoonotic diseases in psittacine birds: apparent increased occurrence of chlamydiosis (psittacosis), salmonellosis, and giardiasis.
Between September 1977 and November 1978, chlamydiosis (psittacoisis) was diagnosed in 52 of 128 parrots, 5 of 12 cockatiels, 2 of 5 cockatoos, 3 of 6 macaws, 1 of 22 conures, 2 of 18 lovebirds, andExpand
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Giardia infection in parakeets.
Giardia infection causing high morbidity and mortality in parakeets in 3 commercial aviaries is described. The disease was successfully treated with dimetridazole.
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