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Microglia emerge from erythromyeloid precursors via Pu.1- and Irf8-dependent pathways
It is found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit+ erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d post conception and microgliogenesis was not only dependent on the transcription factor Pu.1, but also required Irf8, which was vital for the development of the A2 population, whereas Myb, Id2, Batf3 and Klf4 were not required. Expand
CAT constructions with multiple unique restriction sites for the functional analysis of eukaryotic promoters and regulatory elements
In the promoterless construction pBLCAT3 eight unique restriction sites are suitable for insertion of different eukaryotic promoters at the 5' end of the CAT gene, enabling the excision of the intact fusion gene from the prokaryotic vector. Expand
Aminooxypentane-RANTES Induces CCR5 Internalization but Inhibits Recycling: A Novel Inhibitory Mechanism of HIV Infectivity
The potency of AOP-RANTES and RANTES to inhibit infection by the M-tropic HIV-1 strain, SF 162, correlated with the degree of downregulation of CCR5 induced by the two chemokines. Expand
Expression and Characterization of the Chemokine Receptors CCR2 and CCR5 in Mice1
Both Abs appear as useful reagents to further study the role of CCR2 and CCR5 in murine disease models and in good correlation to these in vitro data, MC-21 almost completely prevented the influx of monocytes in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Expand
The HNF-3 gene family of transcription factors in mice: gene structure, cDNA sequence, and mRNA distribution.
The rat HNF-3 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 3) gene family encodes three transcription factors known to be important in the regulation of gene expression in liver and lung and their expression patterns in various adult tissues and mouse embryonic stages are analyzed. Expand
Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.
Lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Expand
Chemokine expression precedes inflammatory cell infiltration and chemokine receptor and cytokine expression during the initiation of murine lupus nephritis.
The hypothesis that chemokines initiate leukocyte infiltration and precede proteinuria and renal damage in MRL/lpr mice is supported and chemokine generation is restricted to sites of subsequent inflammatory cell infiltration and the onset of proteinuria. Expand
Ccr5 But Not Ccr1 Deficiency Reduces Development of Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mice
Genetic deletion of Ccr5 but not Ccr1 in ApoE−/− mice protects from diet-induced atherosclerosis, associated with a more stable plaque phenotype, reduced mononuclear cell infiltration, Th1-type immune responses, and increased interleukin-10 expression. Expand
Transcriptional regulation of the interleukin-6 gene in mesangial cells.
A signal transduction pathway in MC that requires protein kinase A activation in addition to a second signal provided by lipopolysaccharide or IL-1beta was identified. Expand
Reporter constructs with low background activity utilizing the cat gene.
Reporter plasmids utilizing the cat gene for the analysis of promoter and enhancer sequences in vertebrate cells, were constructed. These plasmids minimize the background of transcription derivedExpand