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Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms.
TLDR
Current evidence suggests that these toxins interact with biological membranes via a molecular region distinct from their known catalytic site, which may lead to membrane destabilization and loss of selective permeability to ions such as calcium, both of which appear to be important mediators in the process of muscle necrosis. Expand
Venoms, venomics, antivenomics
TLDR
Proteomic protocols for uncoiling the composition, immunological profile, and evolution of snake venoms are reviewed to gain a deep insight of all viperid venom proteomes. Expand
Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal
TLDR
The increased concentration of the neurotoxins crotoxin and crotamine in South American rattlesnake venoms strongly argues that the gain of neurotoxicity and lethal venom activities to mammals may have represented the key axis along which overall venom toxicity has evolved during Crotalus durissus invasion of South America. Expand
An overview of lysine-49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins from crotalid snake venoms and their structural determinants of myotoxic action.
TLDR
It is proposed that all the toxic activities of Lys49 PLA2s are related to their ability to destabilize natural and artificial membranes, using a cationic/hydrophobic effector site located at their C-terminal loop. Expand
Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend
TLDR
The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using thisAntivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. Expand
Cellular pathology induced by snake venom phospholipase A2 myotoxins and neurotoxins: common aspects of their mechanisms of action
TLDR
This work discusses how snake toxins achieve a similar cellular lesion, which is evolutionarily highly conserved, despite the differences listed above, with respect to venom PLA2s. Expand
Snake venom Lys49 myotoxins: From phospholipases A(2) to non-enzymatic membrane disruptors.
TLDR
Four proposed models of their functional "toxic site" are summarized, and some novel insights into their mode of action are discussed, in particular examining arguments and experimental observations that could shed light on the possible nature of their membrane target on skeletal muscle cells, which remains elusive. Expand
Trends in snakebite envenomation therapy: scientific, technological and public health considerations.
TLDR
There is a need to improve the therapy of snakebite envenomations on the following lines: the technologies to produce antivenoms require improvements aimed at obtaining more refined preparations of higher efficacy and safety, while being affordable for the public health systems of developing countries. Expand
Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica.
TLDR
Venomics of Micrurus species may provide a valuable platform for the rational design of immunizing cocktails to obtain polyspecific antivenoms for this highly diverse group of American elapids. Expand
Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming.
TLDR
Several aspects of antivenom manufacture and control are discussed in which the proteomic analysis of snake venoms, for which the term 'snake venomics' has been coined, might play a relevant supporting role. Expand
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