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The olfactory bulbectomised rat as a model of depression
The olfactory bulbectomized rat as a model of depression: an update.
The new ‘5-HT’ hypothesis of depression: Cell-mediated immune activation induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental…
Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of…
Depression, stress and immunological activation: the role of cytokines in depressive disorders.
Kynurenine pathway in major depression: evidence of impaired neuroprotection.
Methylphenidate: a review of its neuropharmacological, neuropsychological and adverse clinical effects
Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways
Shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology.
Imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in depressed patients: the effect of electroacupuncture or fluoxetine treatment.
- C. Song, U. Halbreich, C. Han, B. Leonard, H. Luo
- Medicine, BiologyPharmacopsychiatry
- 1 September 2009
An imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and between Th1 and Th2 cytokines (INF-gamma or TNF-alpha and IL-4) occurred in untreated depressed patients, suggesting that a major imbalance in inflammatory response and an imbalance between T-helper 1 and 2 functions occurred.