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The olfactory bulbectomised rat as a model of depression
  • Cai Song, B. Leonard
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 31 December 2005
Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy results in changes in behavior, and in the endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems, that simulates many of those seen in patients with major depression. TheExpand
The olfactory bulbectomized rat as a model of depression: an update.
The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat has been proposed as an animal model of depression. The following behavioural changes have been observed following bilateral olfactory bulbectomy: hyperactivityExpand
The new ‘5-HT’ hypothesis of depression: Cell-mediated immune activation induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental
This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophanExpand
Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of
  • B. Leonard, M. Maes
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 1 February 2012
This paper reviews that cell-mediated-immune (CMI) activation and inflammation contribute to depressive symptoms, including anhedonia; anxiety-like behaviors; fatigue and somatic symptoms, e.g.Expand
Kynurenine pathway in major depression: evidence of impaired neuroprotection.
The neurodegeneration hypothesis proposed major depression as a consequence of the imbalance between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. To test theExpand
Depression, stress and immunological activation: the role of cytokines in depressive disorders.
Traditionally, both stress and depression have been associated with impaired immune function and increased susceptibility to infectious and neoplastic disease. However over the last number of years aExpand
Imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in depressed patients: the effect of electroacupuncture or fluoxetine treatment.
BACKGROUND An increase in inflammatory response and an imbalance between T-helper (Th) 1 and 2 functions have been implicated in major depression. The aims of the present study were to 1) study theExpand
Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune traumaExpand
Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression.
BACKGROUND Many studies have shown that the balance between Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines plays a role in modulation of cellular responses in the brain during psychological stress and psychiatricExpand