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A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays
THE development of techniques for focusing X-rays has occupied physicists for more than a century. Refractive lenses, which are used extensively in visible-light optics, are generally consideredExpand
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Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range
The manufacture and properties of compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for hard X-rays with parabolic profile are described. These novel lenses can be used up to ∼60 keV. A typical focal length is 1 m.Expand
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Small-angle options of the upgraded ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering beamline BW4 at HASYLAB
We present the upgrade and present status of the ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) beamline BW4 at the Hamburg Synchrotronstrahlungslabor. In order to extend the accessible scattering vectorExpand
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Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses
Based on nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses a hard x-ray scanning microscope is currently being developed and is being implemented at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation FacilityExpand
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Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions by adiabatically focusing lenses.
We address the question of what is the smallest spot size that hard x rays can be focused to using refractive optics. A thick refractive x-ray lens is considered, whose aperture is graduallyExpand
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Refractive x-ray lenses
Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be usedExpand
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Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of interatomic distances, coordination numbers, and mean relative displacements in disordered alloys
A procedure is described for determining interatomic distances $r$, coordination numbers $N$, and mean relative displacements $\ensuremath{\sigma}$ from extended x-ray absorption fine structureExpand
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A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses
We describe refractive x-ray lenses with a parabolic profile that are genuine imaging devices, similar to glass lenses for visible light. They open considerable possibilities in x-ray microscopy,Expand
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Focusing high-energy x rays by compound refractive lenses.
Compound lenses made from low-Z materials (e.g., Be, B, C, and Al) set up as a linear array of refractive lenses are proposed for submicrometer focusing of high-energy x rays (>5 keV) in one or twoExpand
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TRANSMISSION AND GAIN OF SINGLY AND DOUBLY FOCUSING REFRACTIVE X-RAY LENSES
Multiple refractive lenses with a focal length of 1 to 2 m are a new tool for focusing hard x rays to a spot size in the micrometer range. They may be used for microdiffraction, microfluorescence,Expand
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