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Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children’s Intellectual Function: An International Pooled Analysis
Environmental lead exposure in children who have maximal blood lead levels < 7.5 μg/dL is associated with intellectual deficits, and an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and IQ score is found.
Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter.
- R. Canfield, C. Henderson, D. Cory-Slechta, C. Cox, T. Jusko, B. Lanphear
- MedicineThe New England journal of medicine
- 17 April 2003
Blood lead concentrations, even those below 10 microg per deciliter, are inversely associated with children's IQ scores at three and five years of age, and associated declines in IQ are greater at these concentrations than at higher concentrations.
The Lancet Commission on pollution and health
Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children.
- T. Froehlich, B. Lanphear, J. Epstein, W. Barbaresi, S. Katusic, R. Kahn
- Medicine, PsychologyArchives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
- 1 September 2007
Poor children are most likely to meet criteria for ADHD yet are least likely to receive consistent pharmacotherapy, and the wealthiest children were more likely than the poorest to receive regular medication treatment.
Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents.
- B. Lanphear, K. Dietrich, P. Auinger, C. Cox
- Medicine, PsychologyPublic health reports
- 1 November 2000
Deficits in cognitive and academic skills associated with lead exposure occur at blood lead concentrations lower than 5 microg/dL, and an inverse relationship between blood lead concentration and scores on four measures of cognitive functioning was observed.
Intellectual Impairment in Children With Blood Lead Concentrations Below 10 μg per Deciliter
It is suggested that substantially more children in the United States undergo adverse cognitive change from environmental exposure to lead than was previously thought and primary prevention is essential in view of the lack of effective treatment for children with moderate blood lead elevations.
Exposures to Environmental Toxicants and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children
- J. Braun, R. Kahn, T. Froehlich, P. Auinger, B. Lanphear
- MedicineEnvironmental health perspectives
- 19 September 2006
Exposure to prenatal tobacco and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD in U.S. children, and if causally linked, these data suggest that prenatal tobacco exposure accounts for 270,000 excess cases of ADHD, and lead Exposure accounts for 290,000 extra cases of ADD.
Variability and Predictors of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations during Pregnancy
Urinary high-molecular-weight phthalate and serum tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with BPA concentrations, suggesting numerous sources of BPA exposure during pregnancy.
Etiologic Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Brain Imaging, Molecular Genetic and Environmental Factors and the Dopamine Hypothesis
Critical issues about etiologic subtypes of ADHD that may involve dopamine are identified, methods that could be used to address these issues are discussed, and old and new theories that may direct research in this area in the future are reviewed.
Impact of Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure on Behavior and Executive Function in Children
G gestational BPA exposure affected behavioral and emotional regulation domains at 3 years of age, especially among girls, and Clinicians may advise concerned patients to reduce their exposure to certain consumer products, but the benefits of such reductions are unclear.