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Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology
How should we understand why firms exist? A prevailing view has been that they serve to keep in check the transaction costs arising from the self-interested motivations of individuals. We develop inExpand
The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode
Characteristics of national cultures have frequently been claimed to influence the selection of entry modes. This article investigates this claim by developing a theoretical argument for why cultureExpand
Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational corporation
Firms are social communities that specialize in the creation and internal transfer of knowledge. The multinational corporation arises not out of the failure of markets for the buying and selling ofExpand
Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives
This paper compares the perspectives of transaction costs and strategic behavior in explaining the motivation to joint venture. In addition, a theory of joint ventures as an instrument ofExpand
Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks
Knowledge, once generated, spills only imperfectly among firms and nations. We posit that since institutions and labor networks vary by region, there should be regional variations in the localizationExpand
Knowledge and the Speed of the Transfer and Imitation of Organizational Capabilities: An Empirical Test
The capabilities of a firm, or any organization, lie primarily in the organizing principles by which individual and functional expertise is structured, coordinated, and communicated. Firms are socialExpand
What Firms Do? Coordination, Identity, and Learning
Firms are organizations that represent social knowledge of coordination and learning. But why should their boundaries demarcate quantitative shifts in the knowledge and capability of their members?Expand
Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire
This article develops the perspective that joint ventures are created as real options to expand in response to future technological and market developments. The exercise of the option is accompaniedExpand
The network as knowledge : Generative rules and the emergence of structure
The imputation problem is how to account for the sources of the value of the firm. I propose that part of the value of the firm derives from its participation in a network that emerges from theExpand