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Optimization of a GCaMP Calcium Indicator for Neural Activity Imaging
GCaMP5 fluorescence provides a more reliable measure of neuronal activity than its predecessor GCaMP3, which allows more sensitive detection of neural activity in vivo and may find widespread applications for cellular imaging in general.
Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration
Interestingly, RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules, showing that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astroCyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration.
Neuronal P2X transmitter-gated cation channels change their ion selectivity in seconds
Changes in the ion selectivity of neuronal P2X transmitter-gated cation channels as a function of time (on the order of seconds) and previous ATP exposure are shown.
International union of pharmacology. XXIV. Current status of the nomenclature and properties of P2X receptors and their subunits.
The structure, distribution, function, and ligand recognition characteristics of P2X receptors, which comprise seven distinct subunits that can function as both homo- and hetero- polymers, are described.
Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes from IP3R2−/− mice in brain slices and during startle responses in vivo
Diverse types of Ca2+ fluctuations in astrocytes are found, which were preserved in Ip3r2−/− mice in brain slices and in vivo, occurred in end feet, and were increased by G protein–coupled receptor activation and by startle-induced neuromodulatory responses.
Allosteric Control of Gating and Kinetics at P2X4Receptor Channels
- B. Khakh, W. Proctor, T. Dunwiddie, C. Labarca, H. Lester
- BiologyThe Journal of Neuroscience
- 1 September 1999
The results suggest that homomeric P2X4 channels are not the primary subtype of P2x receptor in the adult trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus and in hippocampal CA1 neurons, and that ivermectin evokes a potent pharmacological gain-of-function phenotype that is specific for P2 X4 channels.
P2X receptors as cell-surface ATP sensors in health and disease
P2X receptors have a molecular architecture distinct from other ion channel protein families, and have several unique functional properties, and in autocrine loops of endothelial and epithelial cells.
Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence
ATP-gated P2X cation-channels
Contribution of Calcium Ions to P2X Channel Responses
The data identify P2X channels as a large source of transmitter-activated Ca2+ influx at resting membrane potentials and support the hypothesis that polar amino acids contribute to Ca 2+ selection in an ATP-gated ion channel.