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Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
TLDR
A mathematical model of random viral evolution and phylogenetic tree construction is developed and used to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection, suggesting a finite window of potential vulnerability of HIV- 1 to vaccine-elicited immune responses, although phenotypic properties of transmitted Envs pose a formidable defense.
Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1
TLDR
By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.
The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
TLDR
Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of virus immune escape showed that the contribution of CD8 T cell–mediated killing of productively infected cells was earlier and much greater than previously recognized and that it contributed to the initial decline of plasma virus in acute infection.
Deciphering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission and Early Envelope Diversification by Single-Genome Amplification and Sequencing
TLDR
It is shown that HIV-1 env genes, other viral genes, and even full-length viral genomes responsible for productive clinical infection can be identified by SGA analysis of plasma virus sampled at intervals typical in large-scale vaccine trials and that pathways of viral diversification and immune escape can be determined accurately.
Genetic identity, biological phenotype, and evolutionary pathways of transmitted/founder viruses in acute and early HIV-1 infection
TLDR
Viral properties associated with mucosal HIV-1 transmission and a limited set of rapidly evolving adaptive mutations driven primarily, but not exclusively, by early cytotoxic T cell responses are revealed.
Type I interferon responses in rhesus macaques prevent SIV infection and slow disease progression
TLDR
The timing ofIFN-induced innate responses in acute SIV infection profoundly affects overall disease course and outweighs the detrimental consequences of increased immune activation, yet the clinical consequences of manipulation of IFN signalling are difficult to predict in vivo and therapeutic interventions in human studies should be approached with caution.
Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas
TLDR
Findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.
Immune clearance of highly pathogenic SIV infection
TLDR
It is shown that regardless of the route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and haematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in several sites for weeks to months, providing compelling evidence for progressive clearance of a pathogenic lentiviral infection.
Increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz
TLDR
It is shown that SIVcpz, the immediate precursor of HIV-1, is pathogenic in free-ranging chimpanzees, and the prevailing view that all natural SIV infections are non-pathogenic is challenged and suggested to have a substantial negative impact on the health, reproduction and lifespan of chimpanzees in the wild.
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