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Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes
In obesity and type 2 diabetes, expression of the GLUT4 glucose transporter is decreased selectively in adipocytes. Adipose-specific Glut4 (also known as Slc2a4) knockout (adipose-Glut4-/-) mice show… Expand
AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolism.
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, and recent data demonstrate that it also plays a critical role in systemic energy balance.… Expand
AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus
Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated… Expand
Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects.
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance has a causal role in type 2 diabetes. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a protein secreted by adipocytes, are increased in insulin-resistant states.… Expand
Glucose transporters and insulin action--implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.
Insulin was discovered more than 75 years ago, but only recently have we begun to understand the mechanisms by which insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into cells. This review discusses recent ...
A novel ChREBP isoform in adipose tissue regulates systemic glucose metabolism
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide and threatens to shorten lifespan. Impaired insulin action in peripheral tissues is a major pathogenic factor. Insulin stimulates… Expand
Obesity and insulin resistance.
The association of obesity with type 2 diabetes has been recognized for decades, and the major basis for this link is the ability of obesity to engender insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a… Expand
PTP1B regulates leptin signal transduction in vivo.
Mice lacking the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin and resistant to obesity. However, the molecular basis for resistance to obesity has been unclear. Here we show that… Expand
Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver
The earliest defect in developing type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, characterized by decreased glucose transport and metabolism in muscle and adipocytes. The glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates… Expand
Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity.
Physical exercise can be an important adjunct in the treatment of both non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Over the past several years, considerable… Expand