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Climate Change 2021—The Physical Science Basis
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body responsible for assessing the science related to climate change. The Sixth Report from IPCC Working Group 1 publishedExpand
The ERA‐40 re‐analysis
ERA-40 is a re-analysis of meteorological observations from September 1957 to August 2002 produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in collaboration with manyExpand
On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps
The two main principles underlying the use of isentropic maps of potential vorticity to represent dynamical processes in the atmosphere are reviewed, including the extension of those principles toExpand
The Steady Linear Response of a Spherical Atmosphere to Thermal and Orographic Forcing
Abstract Motivated by some results from barotropic models, a linearized steady-state five-layer baroclinic model is used to study the response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographicExpand
On the Existence of Storm-Tracks.
Abstract Given that middle latitude weather systems transport heat in a manner such as to weaken the baroclinicity that is thought to be crucial to their growth, it is perhaps surprising thatExpand
New perspectives on the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks
Abstract The aim of this paper is to explore the use of both an Eulerian and system-centered method of storm track diagnosis applied to a wide range of meteorological fields at multiple levels toExpand
Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation
The definition and interpretation of the Arctic oscillation (AO) are examined and compared with those of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). It is shown that the NAO reflects the correlationsExpand
Eliassen-Palm Cross Sections for the Troposphere
Abstract “Eliassen-Palm (EP) cross sections” are meridional cross sections showing the Eliassen-Palm flux F by arrows and its divergence by contours. For large-scale, quasi-geostrophic motion F isExpand
Two paradigms of baroclinic‐wave life‐cycle behaviour
Two idealized baroclinic wave-6 life cycles examined here suggest a framework of opposite extremes (a) in which to view the behaviour of real synoptic-scale disturbances in middle latitudes, and (b)Expand
A new perspective on blocking
Abstract It is argued that the essential aspect of atmospheric blocking may be seen in the wave breaking of potential temperature (θ) on a potential vorticity (PV) surface, which may be identifiedExpand
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