Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
The detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of HIV-specific antibodies is reported, indicating a new mechanism contributing to HIV-1 persistence in the face of an evolving antibody repertoire.
Origins of HIV and the AIDS pandemic.
Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk.
Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
A mathematical model of random viral evolution and phylogenetic tree construction is developed and used to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection, suggesting a finite window of potential vulnerability of HIV- 1 to vaccine-elicited immune responses, although phenotypic properties of transmitted Envs pose a formidable defense.
Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes
The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages.
AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications.
Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates and the implications of human infection by a diverse set of SIVs and of exposure to a plethora of additional human immunodewirable viruses are discussed.
Great ape genetic diversity and population history
This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations.
Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
Almost complete replacement of wild-type virus in plasma by drug-resistant variants occurs after fourteen days, indicating that HIV-1 viraemia is sustained primarily by a dynamic process involving continuous rounds of de novo virus infection and replication and rapid cell turnover.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Clones from Acute and Early Subtype B Infections for Standardized Assessments of Vaccine-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies
There is an urgent need to establish standard panels of HIV-1 reference strains for wide distribution and a lack of uniformity in target strains used by different investigators to assess cross-neutralization has made the comparison of vaccine-induced antibody responses difficult.
Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1
By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.
Envelope-Constrained Neutralization-Sensitive HIV-1 After Heterosexual Transmission
For eight heterosexual transmission pairs, it is shown that recipient viruses were monophyletic, encoding compact, glycan-restricted envelope glycoproteins, and that these viruses were uniquely sensitive to neutralization by antibody from the transmitting partner.