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Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic, and virtually no physician is without patients who have the disease. Whereas insulin insensitivity is an early phenomenon partly related to obesity,Expand
Human Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is a Source of Inflammatory Mediators
Background—Inflammatory mediators that originate in vascular and extravascular tissues promote coronary lesion formation. Adipose tissue may function as an endocrine organ that contributes to anExpand
Structure of the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 defines a unique signal transduction protein
SINCE the discovery of insulin nearly 70 years ago, there has been no problem more fundamental to diabetes research than understanding how insulin works at the cellular level. Insulin binds to the αExpand
Adiponectin regulates albuminuria and podocyte function in mice.
Increased albuminuria is associated with obesity and diabetes and is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. However, the link between early albuminuria and adiposity remains unclear. ToExpand
The NAD(P)H Oxidase Homolog Nox4 Modulates Insulin-Stimulated Generation of H2O2 and Plays an Integral Role in Insulin Signal Transduction
ABSTRACT Insulin stimulation of target cells elicits a burst of H2O2 that enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its cellular substrate proteins as well as distal signalingExpand
AMPK and cell proliferation – AMPK as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and cancer
AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase, which serves as an energy sensor in all eukaryotic cell types. Published studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation inExpand
Adiponectin: A novel adipokine linking adipocytes and vascular function.
Cardiovascular disease accounts for an overwhelming proportion of the morbidity and mortality suffered by patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and recent work has elucidated severalExpand
Tyrosine Dephosphorylation and Deactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 by Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1B
Regulation of the steady-state tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its postreceptor substrates are essential determinants of insulin signal transduction. However, little is knownExpand
Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.
CONTEXT Psychological distress is linked with impaired glycemic control among diabetics. OBJECTIVE Estimate changes in glycemic control, weight, blood pressure, and stress-related psychologicalExpand
Insulin-stimulated Hydrogen Peroxide Reversibly Inhibits Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1B in Vivo and Enhances the Early Insulin Action Cascade*
The insulin signaling pathway is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and key post-receptor substrate proteins and balanced by the action of specific protein-tyrosineExpand