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The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.
TLDR
A number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited are discussed and a revised and expanded working definition for venom is proposed.
Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes
TLDR
Demonstration that the snakes, iguanians and anguimorphs form a single clade provides overwhelming support for a single, early origin of the venom system in lizards and snakes.
From genome to "venome": molecular origin and evolution of the snake venom proteome inferred from phylogenetic analysis of toxin sequences and related body proteins.
  • B. Fry
  • Biology
    Genome research
  • 1 March 2005
TLDR
This study revealed that the toxin types, where the ancestral protein was extensively cysteine cross-linked, were the ones that flourished into functionally diverse, novel toxin multigene families.
Evolution of an Arsenal
TLDR
Investigation of the timing of toxin recruitment events across the entire advanced snake radiation indicates that the evolution of advanced venom systems in three front-fanged lineages is associated with recruitment of new toxin types or explosive diversification of existing toxin types.
Analysis of Colubroidea snake venoms by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: evolutionary and toxinological implications.
TLDR
The large body of data on molecular masses and retention times thus assembled demonstrates a hitherto unsuspected diversity of toxins in all lineages, having implications ranging from clinical management of envenomings to venom evolution to the use of isolated toxins as leads for drug design and development.
Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins
TLDR
The complexity of venom components represents a unique therapeutic challenge and probably reflects the ancient evolutionary history of the cnidarian venom system and is invaluable as a therapeutic target for sting treatment or as lead compounds for drug design.
Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs
TLDR
A new model is put forward for the evolution of snake fangs: a posterior subregion of the tooth-forming epithelium became developmentally uncoupled from the remaining dentition, which allowed the posterior teeth to evolve independently and in close association with the venom gland, becoming highly modified in different lineages.
Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny of Elapid Snake Venom Three-Finger Toxins
TLDR
The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term evolutionary patterns exhibited by these snake venom toxins to understand the mechanisms by which they diversified into a large, biochemically diverse, multigene family.
Evolution of separate predation- and defence-evoked venoms in carnivorous cone snails
TLDR
It is proposed that defensive toxins, originally evolved in ancestral worm-hunting cone snails to protect against cephalopod and fish predation, have been repurposed in predatory venoms to facilitate diversification to fish and mollusk diets.
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