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Specific and redundant functions of the paralogous Hoxa-9 and Hoxd-9 genes in forelimb and axial skeleton patterning.
The present and previously reported results show that disruption of different Hox genes can produce similar vertebral transformations, thus supporting a combinatorial code model for specification of vertebral identity by H Cox genes.
Functional cooperation between the non-paralogous genes Hoxa-10 and Hoxd-11 in the developing forelimb and axial skeleton.
- B. Favier, F. Rijli, C. Fromental-Ramain, V. Fraulob, P. Chambon, P. Dollé
- 1 February 1996
It is found that a targeted disruption of Hoxa-10 has almost no effect in the forelimbs, while it affects the proximal hindlimb skeleton, and functional redundancy can occur even between non-paralogous Abdominal B-related Hox genes.
Developmental functions of mammalian Hox genes.
Clues about the developmental functions of Hox complexes have been recently uncovered from the analysis of loss-of-function mutants generated by the gene targeting technique, as well as from transgenic mice with altered Hox gene expression domains.
Deletion of a HoxD enhancer induces transcriptional heterochrony leading to transposition of the sacrum
Proper vertebral specification requires a precise temporal control of Hox gene expression, in addition to spatial regulation, and a slight time delay in expression cannot be compensated for at a later developmental stage, eventually leading to morphological alterations.
Axial skeleton homeosis and forelimb malformations in Hoxd-11 mutant mice.
- B. Favier, M. Le Meur, P. Chambon, P. Dollé
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 3 January 1995
It is found that Hoxd-11-/- mutant mice are viable and display homeotic transformations of their sacral vertebrae, while their forelimbs present abnormalities of some metacarpals and of the first row of carpal bones.
Functional equivalence and rescue among group 11 Hox gene products in vertebral patterning.
The phenotypic rescue of these genotypes shows that the Hoxa-11 and Hoxd-11 products are functionally equivalent and that extra doses of HoxD-11 can rescue HoxA-11 loss of function.
Image-based computational modeling of blood flow in a porcine aorta bypass graft
Significant progress in imaging tools now make it possible to visualize large areas of the cardiovascular tree, observe moving vessel walls and measure velocities in vivo, and numerical techniques enable the investigation of the effect of geometric and flow-rate modifications in the studied model.
New imaging tools for mouse models of osteoarthritis.
Innovative imaging technologies could be an alternative to conventional histology with greater resolution and more efficiency in both morphological analysis and metabolism follow-up in OA.
Modeling blood flow in a porcine aorta bypass graft : realization of physiological conditions
The techniques of experimental fluid mechanics have been effectively used in the context of artificial models to characterize flow patterns and the need exists for computational methods capable of simulating blood flow using virtual models.