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Bees diversified in the age of eudicots
TLDR
All of the major bee clades are estimated to have originated during the Middle to Late Cretaceous, which is when angiosperms became the dominant group of land plants.
Recent and simultaneous origins of eusociality in halictid bees
TLDR
Results from relaxed molecular clock dating techniques indicate that the three independent origins of eusociality in halictid bees occurred within a narrow time frame between approximately 20 and 22 Myr ago, suggesting that climate may have had an important role in the evolution and maintenance of eusociality in these bees.
Changing paradigms in insect social evolution: insights from halictine and allodapine bees.
TLDR
It has become apparent that forms of social organization, caste determination, and sex allocation are more labile and complex than previously thought, although the terminologies for describing them are still inadequate.
The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees
TLDR
It is revealed that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya) in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior.
PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SOCIALLY POLYMORPHIC SWEAT BEE HALICTUS RUBICUNDUS (HYMENOPTERA: HALICTIDAE)
TLDR
The results support the predictions for genetic control of sociality, but they are still consistent with social behavior at some level being determined by the environmental conditions at the nesting site.
Phylogeny of the bee genus Halictus (Hymenoptera: halictidae) based on parsimony and likelihood analyses of nuclear EF-1alpha sequence data.
TLDR
The ancestral state for the genus Halictus is eusociality, and reversal to solitary behavior has occurred at least four times among the species included in this analysis.
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