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Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression.
Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review.
The evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior.
Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature
A meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults and that playing violent videogames also decreases prosocial behavior.
Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: does self-love or self-hate lead to violence?
Psychological Entitlement: Interpersonal Consequences and Validation of a Self-Report Measure
- W. K. Campbell, Angelica M. Bonacci, Jeremy Shelton, J. Exline, B. Bushman
- PsychologyJournal of Personality Assessment
- 1 August 2004
The Psychological Entitlement Scale was found to be reliable and valid, not associated with social desirability, stable across time, and correlated negatively with two of the Big Five factors: agreeableness and emotional stability.
Does Venting Anger Feed or Extinguish the Flame? Catharsis, Rumination, Distraction, Anger, and Aggressive Responding
- B. Bushman
- 1 June 2002
Does distraction or rumination work better to diffuse anger? Catharsis theory predicts that rumination works best, but empirical evidence is lacking. In this study, angered participants hit a…
Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy?
It seems a proper time to "pull the plug" and allow the hostile-instrumental aggression dichotomy a dignified death.
Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model
Research conducted over several decades has shown that violent media increase aggression. It is now time to move beyond the question of whether violent media increase aggression to answering the…
Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.
- B. Bushman
- PsychologyJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
- 1 November 1995
V Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low traitaggressive individuals.
The Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Behaviors: International Evidence From Correlational, Longitudinal, and Experimental Studies
- D. Gentile, C. Anderson, A. Sakamoto
- PsychologyPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
- 25 March 2009
Similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence of a prosocial game content effect, and they provide support for the General Learning Model.