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Thiazolidinediones, like metformin, inhibit respiratory complex I: a common mechanism contributing to their antidiabetic actions?
TLDR
24-h exposure of isolated rat soleus muscle to metformin or TZDs reduced cell respiration and increased anaerobic glycolysis, which could contribute to their antidiabetic effects.
The Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway Regulates Nutrient-Sensitive Glucose Uptake in Man
TLDR
In conclusion, rapamycin stimulates insulin-mediated glucose uptake in man under conditions known to activate the mTOR/S6K pathway.
Direct thiazolidinedione action on isolated rat skeletal muscle fuel handling is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-mediated changes in gene expression.
TLDR
Good evidence is provided that direct inhibition of mitochondrial fuel oxidation in isolated skeletal muscle is a group-specific effect of TZDs and is independent of PPAR-gamma-mediated gene expression.
Fenofibrate Impairs Rat Mitochondrial Function by Inhibition of Respiratory Complex I
TLDR
These findings support the notion that individual fibrates induce mitochondrial dysfunction via different molecular mechanisms and show that fenofibrate predominantly acts by inhibition of complex I of the respiratory chain.
Activation of PPAR-δ in isolated rat skeletal muscle switches fuel preference from glucose to fatty acids
TLDR
GW501516-induced activation of PPAR-δ reduces glucose utilisation by skeletal muscle through a switch in mitochondrial substrate preference from carbohydrate to lipid, suggesting a role for the glucose–fatty acid cycle.
Age-Dependent Development of Metabolic Derangement and Effects of Intervention with Pioglitazone in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
TLDR
Zucker diabetic fatty rats are suitable for preclinical characterization of insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones in many aspects, but several important differences versus human type 2 diabetes exist and are to be considered in the use of this animal model.
Insulin does not regulate glucose transport and metabolism in human endothelium
TLDR
This study tested whether insulin affects glucose metabolism in human endothelium, whether insulin sensitivity is different in micro‐ versus macrovascular endothelial cells, and whether glucose concentration in the incubation medium affects the cells’ response to insulin.
Chronic and acute effects of thiazolidinediones BM13.1258 and BM15.2054 on rat skeletal muscle glucose metabolism
TLDR
Evidence is provided that BM13.1258 and BM15.2054 can affect muscle glucose metabolism via more than one mechanism of action, and to what extent other mechanisms besides insulin sensitization via the activation of PPARγ are involved in the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones.
Progesterone impairs cell respiration and suppresses a compensatory increase in glucose transport in isolated rat skeletal muscle: a non-genomic mechanism contributing to metabolic adaptation to late
TLDR
Progesterone inhibits cell respiration and at the same time suppresses a compensatory increase in glucose transport, causing cellular carbohydrate deficiency in isolated rat skeletal muscle and could contribute to pregnancy-associated changes in glucose homeostasis.
Effects of free fatty acids on carbohydrate metabolism and insulin signalling in perfused rat liver
TLDR
This work aimed to investigate acute direct effects of specific FFAs on fasting HGP, lactate uptake, and insulin signalling in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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