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Genetic Discontinuity Between Local Hunter-Gatherers and Central Europe’s First Farmers
TLDR
Together, these analyses provide persuasive evidence that the first farmers were not the descendants of local hunter-gatherers but immigrated into central Europe at the onset of the Neolithic.
Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites
TLDR
It is found that 25% of the Neolithic farmers had one characteristic mtDNA type and that this type formerly was widespread among Neolithic Farmers in Central Europe and this finding lends weight to a proposed Paleolithic ancestry for modern Europeans.
Absence of the lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans
TLDR
A stepwise strategy for obtaining reliable nuclear ancient DNA from ancient skeletons is developed, which obtained high-confidence LP-associated genotypes from eight Neolithic and one Mesolithic human remains, using a range of strict criteria for ancient DNA work.
Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death
TLDR
The results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.
Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe
TLDR
It is shown that climate-driven outbreaks of Yersinia pestis in Asian rodent plague reservoirs are significantly associated with new waves of plague arriving into Europe through its maritime trade network with Asia, which strongly suggests that the bacterium was continuously reimported into Europe during the second plague pandemic.
Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague
TLDR
The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.
COVID-19 and Individual Genetic Susceptibility/Receptivity: Role of ACE1/ACE2 Genes, Immunity, Inflammation and Coagulation. Might the Double X-Chromosome in Females Be Protective against SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
SARS-CoV-2 has a strong interaction with the human ACE2 receptor, which plays an essential role in cell entry together with transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and several genes involved in inflammation are located on the X-chromosome, which also contains high number of immune-related genes responsible for innate and adaptive immune responses to infection.
Recovery of a Medieval Brucella melitensis Genome Using Shotgun Metagenomics
TLDR
The metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu is sequenced, confirming the continuity of this zoonotic infection, and even a specific lineage, in the Mediterranean region over the centuries.
Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period
TLDR
The presented phylogeny could support the hypothesis of an entry of plague into Western European ports through distinct waves of introduction during the Medieval Period, possibly by means of fur trade routes, as well as the recirculation of plague within the human population via trade routes and human movement.
Plague: A Disease Which Changed the Path of Human Civilization.
Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic infection, i.e., it is maintained in wildlife by animal reservoirs and on occasion spills over into human populations, causing outbreaks of different
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