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Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophagesExpand
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Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors.
The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, theExpand
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New use of BCG for recombinant vaccines
BCG, a live attenuated tubercle bacillus, is the most widely used vaccine in the world and is also a useful vaccine vehicle for delivering protective antigens of multiple pathogens. ExtrachromosomalExpand
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is required in the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.
Understanding the immunological mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis in tuberculosis remains problematic. We have examined the extent to which tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) contributesExpand
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An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Tuberculosis, a major health problem in developing countries, has reemerged in recent years in many industrialized countries. The increased susceptibility of immunocompromised individuals toExpand
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Genome-wide requirements for Mycobacterium tuberculosis adaptation and survival in macrophages.
Macrophages are central to host defense against microbes, but intracellular pathogens have evolved to evade their antimicrobial functions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has successfully exploitedExpand
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Tuberculosis: Commentary on a Reemergent Killer
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world from a single infectious disease, although there is little knowledge of the mechanisms of its pathogenesis and protection from it. After aExpand
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Mutually dependent secretion of proteins required for mycobacterial virulence.
The ESX-1 locus is a region critical for full virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which encodes two secreted proteins as well as other genes involved in their secretion. The mechanism ofExpand
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An antimicrobial activity of cytolytic T cells mediated by granulysin.
Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill intracellular pathogens by a granule-dependent mechanism. Granulysin, a protein found in granules of CTLs, reduced the viability of a broad spectrum of pathogenicExpand
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Killing of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reactive nitrogen intermediates produced by activated murine macrophages
Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, yet the mechanisms by which macrophages defend against Mycobacterium tuberculosis have remainedExpand
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