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Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene.
Mutations of the gene Lps selectively impede lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal transduction in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, rendering them resistant to endotoxin yet highly susceptible toExpand
Identification of Lps2 as a key transducer of MyD88-independent TIR signalling
In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. UsingExpand
Essential role of mda-5 in type I IFN responses to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid and encephalomyocarditis picornavirus.
The innate immune system recognizes viral dsRNA through two distinct pathways; the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway detects dsRNA phagocytosed in endosomes; the helicases retinoic acid-inducedExpand
Intracellular toll-like receptors.
Foreign nucleic acids, the signature of invading viruses and certain bacteria, are sensed intracellularly. The nucleic acid-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect and signal within endolysosomalExpand
Innate immunity: an overview.
  • B. Beutler
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular immunology
  • 1 February 2004
Though sometimes portrayed as "new," the science of innate immunity made its start more than 100 years ago. Recent progress has reflected the application of new methods to old problems. InExpand
Exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens activate NKT cells during microbial infections
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that express a conserved T-cell receptor and contribute to host defence against various microbial pathogens. However, theirExpand
Toll-like receptors 9 and 3 as essential components of innate immune defense against mouse cytomegalovirus infection.
Several subsets of dendritic cells have been shown to produce type I IFN in response to viral infections, thereby assisting the natural killer cell-dependent response that eliminates the pathogen.Expand
Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin
How does the host sense pathogens? Our present concepts grew directly from longstanding efforts to understand infectious disease: how microbes harm the host, what molecules are sensed and,Expand
CD36 is a sensor of diacylglycerides
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is required for the recognition of numerous molecular components of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The breadth of the ligand repertoire seems unusual, even if one considersExpand
Inferences, questions and possibilities in Toll-like receptor signalling
The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the key proteins that allow mammals — whether immunologically naive or experienced — to detect microbes. They lie at the core of our inherited resistance toExpand