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Inhibition of Retrograde Transport Protects Mice from Lethal Ricin Challenge
Bacterial Shiga-like toxins are virulence factors that constitute a significant public health threat worldwide, and the plant toxin ricin is a potential bioterror weapon. To gain access to theirExpand
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Phosphatidylinositol‐(4,5)‐bisphosphate enables efficient secretion of HIV‐1 Tat by infected T‐cells
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) transcription relies on its transactivating Tat protein. Although devoid of a signal sequence, Tat is released by infected cells and secreted Tat canExpand
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HIV-1 Tat enters T cells using coated pits before translocating from acidified endosomes and eliciting biological responses.
The HIV-1 Tat protein is secreted by infected cells. Extracellular Tat can affect bystander uninfected T cells and induce numerous biological responses such as apoptosis and cytokine secretion. TatExpand
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Autophagy Restricts HIV-1 Infection by Selectively Degrading Tat in CD4+ T Lymphocytes
ABSTRACT Autophagy is a ubiquitous mechanism involved in the lysosomal-mediated degradation of cellular components when they are engulfed in vacuoles called autophagosomes. Autophagy is alsoExpand
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The Ins and Outs of HIV‐1 Tat
HIV‐1 encodes for the small basic protein Tat (86–101 residues) that drastically enhances the efficiency of viral transcription. The mechanism enabling Tat nuclear import is not yet clear, butExpand
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Isolation and preliminary characterization of the major membrane boundaries of the endocytic pathway in lymphocytes
Plasma membrane, coated pits, endosomes, and lysosomes were isolated from a mouse T lymphoma cell line using a density shift protocol in which these compartments were selectively loaded with goldExpand
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Mechanism for HIV-1 Tat Insertion into the Endosome Membrane*
The human immunodeficiency virus, type 1, transactivating protein Tat is a small protein that is strictly required for viral transcription and multiplication within infected cells. The infected cellsExpand
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Intracellular pathway of Onconase that enables its delivery to the cytosol
Onconase® is an RNase with a very specific property because it is selectively toxic to transformed cells. This toxin is thought to recognize cell surface receptors, and the protection conferred byExpand
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A nuclear localization sequence endows human pancreatic ribonuclease with cytotoxic activity.
Some members of the ribonuclease superfamily, such as Onconase, are cytotoxic to cancer cells. This is not the case for human pancreatic ribonuclease. This lack of cytotoxicity is probably a resultExpand
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HIV-1 Antisense Transcription Is Preferentially Activated in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cells
ABSTRACT In this study, an antisense luciferase-expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) molecular clone was used to infect primary cells. We found that antisense transcription activityExpand
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