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Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults.
TLDR
The effect size of all the risk factors was modest, but factors operating during or after the trauma, such as trauma severity, lack of social support, and additional life stress, had somewhat stronger effects than pretrauma factors.
Brief screening instrument for post-traumatic stress disorder
TLDR
Performance of the new measure was equivalent to agreement achieved between two full clinical interviews, which indicates excellent prediction of a PTSD diagnosis was provided by respondents endorsing at least six re-experiencing or arousal symptoms.
Predicting depressive symptoms with a new measure of shame: The Experience of Shame Scale.
TLDR
It was concluded that the reason for the differential performance of the two scales was that the ESS, like the shame interview, assesses specific areas of shame related to self and performance, whereas the TOSCA assesses general shame and may therefore be more prone to mood-state effects.
The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students.
TLDR
This is the first study to confirm empirically that financial and other difficulties can increase British students' levels of anxiety and depression and that financial difficulties and depression can affect academic performance.
Psychopathology and early experience: a reappraisal of retrospective reports.
TLDR
The evidence reviewed suggests that claims concerning the general unreliability of retrospective reports are exaggerated and that there is little reason to link psychiatric status with less reliable or less valid recall of early experiences.
Bodily shame as a mediator between abusive experiences and depression.
  • B. Andrews
  • Psychology
    Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 1 May 1995
TLDR
The role of bodily shame as a mediator between sexual or physical abuse and depression was investigated in a community sample of 101 women who had been followed for 8 years, and Bodily shame was related to childhood abuse.
Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence.
TLDR
It was consistently showed that delayed-onset PTSD in the absence of any prior symptoms was rare, whereas delayed onsets that represented exacerbations or reactivations of prior symptoms accounted on average for 38.2% and 15.3%, respectively, of military and civilian cases of PTSD.
Predicting PTSD symptoms in victims of violent crime: the role of shame, anger, and childhood abuse.
TLDR
It is suggested that both shame and anger play an important role in the phenomenology of crime-related PTSD and that shame makes a contribution to the subsequent course of symptoms.
Self-esteem in schizophrenia: relationships between self-evaluation, family attitudes, and symptomatology.
TLDR
Analysis supported a model whereby the impact of criticism on patients' positive symptoms was mediated by its association with negative self-evaluation, and the interview-based method of self-esteem assessment was found to be superior to the questionnaire because its predictive effects remained after depressed mood was accounted for.
Fear, Helplessness, and Horror in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Investigating DSM-IV Criterion A2 in Victims of Violent Crime
TLDR
It is found that intense levels of all 3 emotions strongly predicted later PTSD, however, a small number of those who later met DSM-III-R or ICD criteria for PTSD did not report intense emotions at the time of the trauma.
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