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A common but often less tested explanation for the successful invasion of alien species is that invasive alien species outcompete their co-occurring natives, which may not always be the case. In this study, we established artificial environmental gradients in a series of pot experiments with controlled environments to investigate the effects of salinity,(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial for β-cell function and survival. Direct as well as indirect evidence has pointed toward Ca2+ as an important determinant of interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. In the present study, we show that IL-1β-induced apoptosis and necrosis in primary rat β-cells and MIN6 cells largely(More)
Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030(More)
Hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua L. were cultivated in three different mist bioreactors, each fitted with three stainless steel meshes. The growth rates in the three 2.3-L mist bioreactors differed. After 25 d, the growth index (final dry weight/initial dry weight) of the roots was 42 in a nutrient mist bioreactor, 61 in an inner-loop nutrient mist(More)
BACKGROUND In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? METHOD Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups(More)
G418 is used extensively in transfection experiments to select eukaryotic cells that have acquired neomycin resistance genes, but the mechanism is still elusive. To investigate this, we treated normal rat kidney cells with G418 for 3 days and found that the cells presented typical apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, and(More)
To control the genetic quality during the whole process of tissue culture of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Saussurea involucrate Kar. et Kir., DNA polymorphisms and genetic variations were investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The genetic stability/variation in(More)
A novel protocol for plant regeneration from cotyledon explants of eggplant (Solanum melongena) reducing concentration of sucrose was established. The most efficient bud induction medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg dm−3 zeatin, 0.1 mg dm−3 indoleacetic acid and 10 g dm−3 sucrose. After 15 d, the shoot buds were(More)
We present a generally symmetrical circuit model to describe all kinds of metamaterials with effective permittivity and permeability. The model is composed of periodic structures whose unit cell is a general T-type circuit. Using the effective medium theory, we derive analytical formulations for the effective permittivity and effective permeability of the(More)