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OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of a hyperechogenic substantia nigra (SN) by transcranial sonography (TCS) in healthy people and to evaluate whether an enlarged hyperechogenic SN area is associated with functional impairment of the nigrostriatal system. BACKGROUND AND METHODS Until now, preclinical impairment of the nigrostriatal system could be(More)
Recent studies using transcranial sonography (TCS) have provided evidence of alterations in the mesencephalic midline structures in patients with unipolar depression and depression in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting an involvement of the basal limbic system in primary and secondary mood disorders. This study tested the hypothesis of brainstem midline(More)
To assess if a specific lesion pattern or changes of the basal limbic system as seen in primary depression and depression associated with neurodegenerative disorders might be identified in depressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, we submitted 78 MS patients to a MRI examination consisting of a quantitative measurement of lesions and of hyperintense(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial ultrasound may be used to detect increased iron levels of the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and in control subjects. It is not known whether iron accumulation in PD is a primary or secondary phenomenon. However, sequence variations in genes involved in iron metabolism have been linked to basal ganglia(More)
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