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Macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions accumulate excess free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipid. Because excess FC is toxic to macrophages, these observations may have relevance to macrophage death and necrosis in atheromata. Previous work by us showed that at early stages of FC loading, when macrophages are still healthy, there is activation of the(More)
Inflammation plays a critical role in atherogenesis, yet the mediators linking inflammation to specific atherogenic processes remain to be elucidated. One such mediator may be secretory sphingomyelinase (S-SMase), a product of the acid sphingomyelinase gene. The secretion of S-SMase by cultured endothelial cells is induced by inflammatory cytokines, and in(More)
The complete genome of O/Akesu/58 strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that it is not closely related to epidemic strains or previous strains compared with reference sequences (the identities of complete VP1 nucleotide sequences range from 77.5 to 84.0%). Its cell-receptor-binding site is a SGD(More)
To study the regulation of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), we characterized the promoter region by primer extension, S1 nuclease mapping and by DNA sequencing. We found that the promoter is extremely G + C rich (72% GC content) and contains a "TAATA" and a "CAT" box, eight "GGGCGG", three "CCGCCC" and two "CACCC" motifs and a motif similar to the(More)
The brain tissues of the rat and mouse express two types of corticosteroid binding proteins, the glucocorticoid (GR) and aldosterone (MR) receptors. Unlike the type II (GR) receptor, type I receptor has a high affinity for aldosterone (ALDO) and corticosterone and is structurally similar to the kidney mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The results reported in(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an essential protein involved in mediating glucocorticoid-regulated gene transcription. The cellular GR concentration is modulated by a number of factors including glucocorticoids, which are capable of down-regulating their own receptor concentration. To further study this phenomenon, the human GR (hGR) gene promoter was(More)
The human DNA binding factor GRF-1, which associates with the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (hGR gene), is a repressor of glucocorticoid receptor transcription. The GRF-1 cDNA was cloned using polyclonal antibodies against the purified protein. The deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA sequences show the presence of three sequence(More)
Three different routes of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection of piglets, namely intranasal (i.n.) through drops, intradermal (i.d.) into the foot, and intramuscular (i.m.) were compared regarding the onset and severity of the disease. The results showed that the i.d. injection of the virus resulted in the fastest onset of the disease. The i.m.(More)