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A map of local curvature of the pBR322 DNA has been established by electron microscopy analysis of linearized plasmid molecules. To determine their polarity these molecules are one end labelled with an avidin-ferritin-biotin complex and the images are digitized. Local curvature is calculated from two mathematical treatments of the DNA trajectory and(More)
The usual conformation of DNA is a right-handed double helix (B-DNA). DNA with stretches of alternating purine-pyrimidine (G-C or A-T) can form a left-handed helix (Z-DNA). The transition B----Z, facilitated by the presence of divalent cations, cytosine methylation, or constraints on DNA such as superhelicity may play a role in the regulation of gene(More)
Steroid hormone-receptor complexes regulate the transcription of specific genes. Recent studies of high-affinity interactions between the receptors and discrete regions of DNA, together with gene-transfer experiments, have led to the precise mapping of hormone regulatory elements. Nothing is known, however, about the mechanisms whereby DNA-bound receptors(More)
The orientation of DNA molecules has been determined by labelling one of the molecule end with a Biotin-labelled analog of dTTP (Bio-dUTP) and then by complexing the Bio-dUTP with Avidin-Ferritin. DNAs of phi X174, pBR322 and SV40 were end labelled with Bio-dUTP and imaged by Electron Microscopy (EM). This is a rapid, general method to unambiguously(More)
Electron microscopy offers a unique potentiality to visualize individual molecules. For the last 30 years it has been used to study the structure and the interactions of various biological macromolecules. The contribution of electron microscopy is important because of its capacity to demonstrate the existence of conformational structures such as kinks,(More)
The structure of the non-coding region of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA has been studied by electron microscopy analysis of DNA molecules end-labelled with streptavidin-ferritin. We have shown that the effect of a protein modifying the shape of the DNA double-helix can be studied and precisely located by this method. It was found that the non-coding(More)
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