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CONTEXT Systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUSBx) is the gold standard for detecting prostate cancer. This systematic approach is characterized by low sensitivity (39-52%) and high specificity (81-82%). Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy techniques are becoming more and more available, but there is no current consensus on the optimal(More)
MRI scanners enable fast, noninvasive, and high-resolution imaging of organs and soft tissue. The images are reconstructed from NMR signals generated by nuclear spins that precess in a static magnetic field B0 in the presence of magnetic field gradients. Most clinical MRI scanners operate at a magnetic field B0 = 1.5 T, corresponding to a proton resonance(More)
Recent experiments in rats have shown the occurrence of a high amplitude slow brain wave in the EEG approximately 1 minute after decapitation, with a duration of 5-15 s (van Rijn et al, PLoS One 6, e16514, 2011) that was presumed to signify the death of brain neurons. We present a computational model of a single neuron and its intra- and extracellular ion(More)
PURPOSE To determine if prostatitis and prostate cancer (PCa) can be distinguished by using apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) on magnetic resonance (MR) images, with specimens obtained at MR-guided biopsy as the standard of reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS The need for institutional review board approval and informed consent was waived. MR-guided(More)
PURPOSE To correlate T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance (MR) image contrast around a cryoablation iceball with temperature in a phantom study and to compare this to its in vivo appearance during MR-guided focal cryoablation of prostate cancer. METHODS A MR-compatible cryoneedle was inserted into identical gel phantoms (n = 3) on a 1.5 T MR system. Two(More)
INTRODUCTION Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of(More)
OBJECTIVE Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) tracer was shown to be non-inferior to the standard combined technique in the SentiMAG Multicentre Trial. The MRI subprotocol of this trial aimed to develop a magnetic alternative for pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy (LS). We evaluated the feasibility of using MRI(More)
UNLABELLED The magnetic technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. An in vivo porcine model was developed to optimise the magnetic technique by evaluating the effect of differing volume, concentration and time of injection of magnetic tracer. A total of 60 sentinel node procedures were undertaken. There(More)
Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of malignancies. Commercially available superparagmagnetic nanoparticles (SPIOs) accumulate in normal lymph tissue after injection at a tumor site, whereas less or no accumulation takes place in metastatic nodes, thus enabling lymphatic staging using MRI. We verify for(More)
UNLABELLED Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have promised a range of applications in biomedicine. Although influenced by the dispersants used, CNTs are recognized by the innate immune system, predominantly by the classical pathway of the complement system. Here, we confirm that complement activation by the CNT used continues up to C3 and C5, indicating that the(More)