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MRI scanners enable fast, noninvasive, and high-resolution imaging of organs and soft tissue. The images are reconstructed from NMR signals generated by nuclear spins that precess in a static magnetic field B0 in the presence of magnetic field gradients. Most clinical MRI scanners operate at a magnetic field B0 = 1.5 T, corresponding to a proton resonance(More)
Recent experiments in rats have shown the occurrence of a high amplitude slow brain wave in the EEG approximately 1 minute after decapitation, with a duration of 5-15 s (van Rijn et al, PLoS One 6, e16514, 2011) that was presumed to signify the death of brain neurons. We present a computational model of a single neuron and its intra- and extracellular ion(More)
We studied single neuron dynamics during anoxic depolarizations, which are often observed in cases of neuronal energy depletion. Anoxic and similar depolarizations play an important role in several pathologies, notably stroke, migraine, and epilepsy. One of the effects of energy depletion was experimentally simulated in slices of rat cortex by blocking the(More)
Spreading depression (SD) is a wave phenomenon in gray matter tissue. Locally, it is characterized by massive redistribution of ions across cell membranes. As a consequence, there is sustained membrane depolarization and tissue polarization that depress any normal electrical activity. Despite these dramatic events, SD remains difficult to observe in humans(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Both hemodynamics and aneurysm wall thickness are important parameters in aneurysm pathophysiology. Our aim was to develop a method for semi-quantitative wall thickness assessment on in vivo 7T MR images of intracranial aneurysms for studying the relation between apparent aneurysm wall thickness and wall shear stress. MATERIALS AND(More)
INTRODUCTION Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of(More)
Spreading depolarization (SD) is an important phenomenon in stroke and migraine. However, the processes underlying the propagation of SD are still poorly understood, and an elementary model that is both physiological and quantitative is lacking. We show that, during the onset and propagation of SD, the concentration time courses of excitatory substances(More)
PURPOSE To compare the clinical benefit of robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (minimax IMPT) with current photon Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and PTV-based IMPT for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. The clinical benefit is quantified in terms of both Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and target coverage in the(More)
Neural mass models (NMM) describe neural activity on a macroscopic scale, which can be compared to the elec-troencephalogram (EEG). This allows a better understanding of the processes responsible for various EEG patterns, including pathological rhythms as diffuse slowing or burst-suppression [1]. Using available models which contain explicit expressions for(More)
Neurons are critically dependent on sufficient supply of oxygen and glucose When this supply is subcritical, as in ischemia, the signaling processes of the neurons are altered due to synaptic transmission failure [1] and decreased rates of the molecular ion pumps needed to maintain transmembrane ion gradients [2]. These changes are partially reflected in(More)