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The ability to judge heading during tracking eye movements has recently been examined by several investigators. To assess the use of retinal-image and extra-retinal information in this task, the previous work has compared heading judgments with executed as opposed to simulated eye movements. For eye movement velocities greater than 1 deg/sec, observers seem(More)
Until half a century ago, associative learning played a fundamental role in theories of perceptual appearance [Berkeley, G. (1709) An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (Dublin), 1st Ed.]. But starting in 1955 [Gibson, J. J. & Gibson, E. J. (1955) Psychol. Rev. 62, 32-41], most studies of perceptual learning have not been concerned with association or(More)
The slant of a stereoscopically defined surface cannot be determined solely from horizontal disparities or from derived quantities such as horizontal size ratio (HSR). There are four other signals that, in combination with horizontal disparity, could in principle allow an unambiguous estimate of slant: the vergence and version of the eyes, the vertical size(More)
The direction of rotation of a wire-frame (Necker) cube, which is perceptually bistable, can be trained to depend on stimulus location (Q. Haijiang, J. A. Saunders, R. W. Stone, & B. T. Backus, 2006). However, it is not known which aspects of "location" are important to this learning. We therefore explored "location" in a series of experiments that(More)
When a horizontal or vertical magnifier is placed before one eye, a frontoparallel surface appears slanted. It appears slanted away from the eye with horizontal magnification (geometric effect) and toward the eye with vertical magnification (induced effect). According to current theory, the apparent slant in the geometric and induced effects should increase(More)
Visual appearance depends upon the resolution of ambiguities that arise when 2D retinal images are interpreted as 3D scenes. This resolution may be characterized as a form of Bayesian perceptual inference, whereby retinal sense data combine with prior belief to yield an interpretation. Under this framework, the prior reflects environmental statistics, so an(More)
We investigated the ability to use linear perspective to perceive depth from monocular images. Specifically, we focused on the information provided by convergence of parallel lines in an image due to perspective projection. Our stimuli were trapezoid-shaped projected contours, which appear as rectangles slanted in depth. If converging edges of a contour are(More)
Rotating a surface about a horizontal axis alters the retinal horizontal-shear disparities. Opposed torsional eye movements (cyclovergence) also change horizontal shear. If there were no compensation for the horizontal disparities created by cyclovergence, slant estimates would be erroneous. We asked whether compensation for cyclovergence occurs, and, if it(More)
During perception, conflicting visual cues often trade against each other. Recent cue recruitment experiments show that the visual system can be conditioned to use artificial visual cues during the perception of a bistable stimulus. Does the visual system treat the new cue as an independent source of information, separate from the long-trusted cues that(More)