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An overview of the properties of electron small polarons and bipolarons is given, which can occur in the congruently melting composition of LiNbO(3) (LN). Such polarons influence the performance of this important optical material decisively. Since coupling to the lattice strongly quenches the tunnelling of free small polarons in general, they are easily(More)
The number densities and absorption cross sections of both optically generated and reduction-induced small electron and hole polarons in LiNbO(3) are determined by means of time-resolved pump-multiprobe spectroscopy. The data are obtained for free (Nb(Nb)(4+)) and bound (Nb(Li)(4+)) electron polarons, bound Nb(Li)(4+):Nb(Nb)(4+) electron bipolarons, and(More)
Hologram recording is studied in thermally reduced, nominally undoped lithium niobate in the time domain from 10 ns to 100 s by means of intense ns pump laser pulses (λ = 532 nm) and continuous-wave probe light (λ = 785 nm). It is shown that mixed absorption and phase gratings can be recorded within 8 ns that feature diffraction efficiencies up to 23 % with(More)
Diffraction efficiency, relaxation behavior and dependence on pump-beam intensity of small-polaron based holograms are studied in thermally reduced, nominally undoped lithium niobate in the visible spectrum (λ = 488 nm). The pronounced phase gratings with diffraction efficiency up to η = (10.8 ± 1.0)% appeared upon irradiation by single ns-laser pulses (λ =(More)
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