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A process for equine influenza virus vaccine production using a microcarrier system (Cytodex 1) in a 2 L Wave bioreactor is described. Growth of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in serum containing GMEM medium (SC) is compared to growth in serum-free Ex-Cell MDCK medium (SF) without washing steps and medium exchange before infection. Cultivations with(More)
The positive inotropic effect of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in electrically driven left auricles isolated from rat hearts. Further analysis of the myocardial phosphoinositide pathway revealed an additional increase in inositol phosphate and inositol(More)
Astrocytes may play a prominent role in the initiation of immunoinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. They can be induced to synthesize eicosanoids but how immunologically relevant molecules modulate this process is not known. We examined the influence of recombinant interleukin-1 (rIL-1), an immunomodulating monokine on the release of(More)
The pathogenetic events leading to demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and in human multiple sclerosis are still unclear. The involvement of anti-myelin antibodies and activated macrophages as effector cells has been postulated. We investigated the synergistic action of the monoclonal antibody 8-18C5 against myelin/oligodendrocyte(More)
This study was designed to identify which cells express major histocompatibility complex class II (Ia) antigen in experimental autoimmune neuritis and may therefore be antigen presenters. Serial 1-micron-thick cryosections of ventral roots of animals with experimental autoimmune neuritis were labeled with Ox6 antibody against rat Ia, the ED1 antibody to(More)
Macrophages have been implicated in myelin damage in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). We examined a possible pathogenetic role of toxic oxygen species elaborated by macrophages in EAN by administering oxygen radical scavengers. Early treatment of rats with either catalase or superoxide dismutase (10,000 U/kg/day) protected animals from the(More)
Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis transferred adoptively with myelin basic protein-specific T line cells (AT-EAE) were studied clinically, electrophysiologically, and histologically. Injection with 5 x 10(6) line cells induced EAE with a rapidly developing tetraplegia after a latent period of 4 days. Electrophysiological testing(More)
Experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) can be prevented or ameliorated by global blockade of macrophages. How these cells damage peripheral nervous tissue in this autoimmune demyelinating polyneuropathy is not fully understood. Since macrophages exert a number of their inflammatory actions by the release of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, we(More)
Substance P (SP) may play an important role in the interactions between the nervous system and the immune system. Astrocytes carry receptors for SP on their surfaces. We examined whether ligand-induced receptor activation would lead to the release of arachidonic acid metabolites. SP (10(-10)-10(-8) M) evokes the formation of prostaglandin E and thromboxane(More)