B. S. Shankaranarayana Rao

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Most studies of cognitive functioning in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive (HIV-1+) subjects have been done in the United States and Europe, where clade B infections predominate. However, in other parts of the world such as South India, where clade C HIV is most common, the prevalence of HIV-1 is increasing. Standardized(More)
We examined the relation of carcinoembryonic antigen levels to time, site and extent of recurrence in 358 patients with colorectal cancer. The recurrence rate was higher in patients with Dukes' B and Dukes' C lesions who had preoperative levels higher than 5 ng per milliliter. There was a linear inverse correlation between preoperative levels and estimated(More)
Inspite of large number of studies on the neurochemical changes in the stress, an equivocal case is yet to be made for the role of a specific neurotransmitter in this important neurobiological disorder. The difficulty arises from the fact that there is no single neurotransmitter system appears to be responsible for the stress induced damage to the(More)
Chronic stress results in cognitive impairment, affects hippocampal neurogenesis and is known to precipitate affective disorders such as depression. In addition to stress, neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine (ACh) modulate adult neurogenesis. Earlier, we have shown that oxotremorine, a cholinergic muscarinic agonist, ameliorates stress-induced cognitive(More)
Self-stimulation has been considered as an intensely rewarding behavioural experience, being perhaps even more influential than feeding or sexual behaviour. Our earlier studies have demonstrated a self-stimulation rewarding experience-induced increase in dendritic branching points, intersections and spine densities in CA3 hippocampal and layer V motor(More)
Severe, traumatic stress or repeated exposure to stress can result in long-term deleterious effects, including hippocampal cell atrophy and death, which, in turn, result in memory impairments and behavioural abnormalities. The dopaminergic D2 receptor agonist, bromocriptine, has been shown to modulate learning, and chronic stress is associated with(More)
The neural basis of depression-associated cognitive impairment remains poorly understood, and the effect of antidepressants on learning and synaptic plasticity in animal models of depression is unknown. In our previous study, learning was impaired in the neonatal clomipramine model of endogenous depression. However, it is not known whether the cognitive(More)
Chronic restraint stress causes spatial learning and memory deficits, dendritic atrophy of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons and alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus. In contrast, intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) rewarding behavioral experience is known to increase dendritic arborization, spine and synaptic density, and(More)
Primary hippocampal cultures derived from newborn rats were exposed to zinc chloride at 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 microM concentrations. Neuronal injury was assessed morphologically and by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux assay. Zinc exposure increased LDH efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to 100 microM zinc for 24 h resulted in(More)
Self-stimulation rewarding experience promoted structural changes in pyramidal neurons of the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the Vth layer of the motor cortex in adult male Wistar rats. Self-stimulation experience was allowed for 1 h daily for a duration of 10 days through bipolar electrodes placed bilaterally in lateral hypothalamus and substantia(More)