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A number of studies have noted that nucleotide substitution rates at the chloroplast-encoded rbcL locus violate the molecular clock principle. Substitution rate variation at this plastid gene is particularly pronounced between palms and grasses; for example, a previous study estimated that substitution rates in rbcL sequences are approximately 5-fold faster(More)
We measured sequence diversity in 21 loci distributed along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.). For each locus, we sequenced a common sample of 25 individuals representing 16 exotic landraces and nine U.S. inbred lines. The data indicated that maize has an average of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) every 104 bp between two randomly(More)
It has long been suspected that maize is the product of an historical tetraploid event. Several observations support this possibility, including the fact that the maize genome contains duplicated chromosomal segments with colinear gene arrangements. Some of the genes from these duplicated segments have been sequenced. In this study, we examine the pattern(More)
A model of DNA sequence evolution applicable to coding regions is presented. This represents the first evolutionary model that accounts for dependencies among nucleotides within a codon. The model uses the codon, as opposed to the nucleotide, as the unit of evolution, and is parameterized in terms of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution(More)
The grass genus Zea contains the domesticate maize and several wild taxa indigenous to Central and South America. Here we study the genetic consequences of speciation and domestication in this group by sampling DNA sequences from four taxa-maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), its wild progenitor (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis), a more distant species within the genus (Z.(More)
Polyploidy has been an extremely common phenomenon in the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite this there are few data available to evaluate the effects of polyploidy on genetic diversity and to compare the relative effects of drift and selection in polyploids and related diploids. We investigated DNA sequence diversity at four nuclear loci (adh1,(More)
We subjected 35 rbcL nucleotide sequences from monocotyledonous taxa to maximum likelihood relative rate tests and estimated relative differences in rates of nucleotide substitution between groups of sequences without relying on knowledge of divergence times between taxa. Rate tests revealed that there is a hierarchy of substitution rate at the rbcL locus(More)
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is genetically diverse, yet it is also morphologically distinct from its wild relatives. These two observations are somewhat contradictory: the first observation is consistent with a large historical population size for maize, but the latter observation is consistent with strong, diversity-limiting selection during maize(More)
The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC gene family has two or three loci in a broad array of angiosperm species. The relative stability in the number of Adh loci led Gottlieb [Gottlieb, L. D. (1982) Science 216, 373-380] to propose that the Adh gene family arose from an ancient gene duplication. In this study, the isolation(More)
We used simulated data to investigate a number of properties of maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree estimation for the case of four taxa. Simulated data were generated under a broad range of conditions, including wide variation in branch lengths, differences in the ratio of transition and transversion substitutions, and the absence of presence of(More)