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Psoriasis vulgaris is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease which has the potential to significantly reduce the quality of life in severely affected patients. The incidence of psoriasis in Western industrialized countries ranges from 1.5 to 2%. Despite the large variety of treatment options available, patient surveys have revealed insufficient(More)
BACKGROUND Aging in the lower face leads to lines, wrinkles, depression of the corners of the mouth, and changes in lip volume and lip shape, with increased sagging of the skin of the jawline. Refined, easy-to-use, validated, objective standards assessing the severity of these changes are required in clinical research and practice. OBJECTIVE To establish(More)
BACKGROUND Twenty grading scales have been developed to assess age-related facial changes. Until now, the validity with regard to the patient's actual age and the clinical importance of combined measurement tools to describe facial aging was unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the reliability and validity of a total face score and three global face(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop the Lip Fullness Grading Scale for objective quantification of lip volume for a reliable assessment and to establish the reliability of this photonumeric scale for clinical research and practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 5-point photonumeric rating scale was developed to objectively quantify fullness of upper and lower lip separately.(More)
BACKGROUND The improvement of aesthetic treatment options for age-related mid face changes, such as volume loss, and the increase in patient expectations necessitates the development of more-complex and globally accepted assessment tools. OBJECTIVE To develop three grading scales for objective assessment of the infraorbital hollow and upper and lower(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related upper face changes such as wrinkles, lines, volume loss, and anatomic alterations may affect quality of life and psychological well-being. The development of globally accepted tools to assess these changes objectively is an essential contribution to aesthetic research and routine clinical medicine. OBJECTIVE To establish the(More)
BACKGROUND One of the first areas to show facial aging is the periorbital region, where brow malposition contributes to the overall appearance of aging. Movement and positioning of the brows are also sex specific. Men may desire a low brow, whereas women may prefer high, arched brows. OBJECTIVES To develop the Brow Positioning Grading Scale for objective(More)
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