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The prospect of using cell replacement therapies has raised the key issue of whether elucidation of developmental pathways can facilitate the generation of therapeutically important cell types from stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain proteins Lmx1a and Msx1 function as determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons, cells that degenerate in patients(More)
A new mouse Hox locus, Hox-7, is defined on chromosome 5 by a gene homologous to the Drosophila gene msh, which contains a homeobox sequence distantly related to that of Antennapedia. By in situ hybridization, expression of Hox-7 is detected in the neural fold of embryos, and also in cephalic neural crest. In addition, expression takes place in the(More)
The vertebrate homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during embryogenesis. We have examined their expression by in situ hybridisation during critical stages of cardiac development in the chick from stages 15+ to 37. Msx-1 expression is apparent in a number of non-myocardial cell(More)
We show that expression of the two related chicken homeo box genes, Hox-7 and Hox-8, which is widespread in the lateral mesoderm at early stages, becomes restricted to the mesoderm underlying the apical ectodermal ridge as limbs develop. Expression in the limb bud mesoderm is not maintained in the limbless mutant, which does not form an apical ridge. The(More)
Regeneration of appendages is frequent among invertebrates as well as some vertebrates. However, in mammals this has been largely relegated to digit tip regeneration, as found in mice and humans. The regenerated structures are formed from a mound of undifferentiated cells called a blastema, found just below the site of amputation. The blastema ultimately(More)
Two loci have been characterized in the mouse Mus musculus, which are homologous to the mRNAs encoding myosin light chains MLC1F and MLC3F, two proteins with a common -COOH terminal sequence. One of these loci is an intronless pseudogene, absent from the mouse species Mus spretus; alterations in its nucleotide sequence preclude it from generating a(More)
In myoblast cell cultures, the Msx1 protein is able to repress myogenesis and maintain cells in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. However, there has been no evidence that Msx1 is expressed in muscle or its precursors in vivo. Using mice with the nlacZ gene integrated into the Msx1 locus, we show that the reporter gene is expressed in the lateral(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH(More)
Msx and Dlx homeoproteins control the morphogenesis and organization of craniofacial skeletal structures, specifically those derived from the pharyngeal arches. In vitro Msx and Dlx proteins have opposing transcriptional properties and form heterodimeric complexes via their homeodomain with reciprocal functional repression. In this report we examine the(More)