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Finite opamp gain and output swing are two limitations for precision analog circuits. These limitations are especially serious at lower supply voltages where limited headroom prevents the use of cascode devices to improve gain. The magnitude of the problem is illustrated in Fig. 30.1.1 for a 2-stage opamp in a 0.18µm process. When each leg is biased at 1mA,… (More)

—A switched-capacitor bias that provides a constant – characteristic over process and temperature variation is presented. The bias can be adapted for use with subthreshold circuits, or circuits in strong inversion. It uses eight transistors, five switches, and three capacitors, and performs with supply voltages less than 0.9 V. Theoretical output current is… (More)

—this paper introduces series/parallel and parallel/series composite resistor topologies. These topologies allow one to design a temperature coefficient that is insensitive to process variations, unlike the traditional simple series and simple parallel composite resistors. Formulas and normalized circuits are provided. Four zero-temperature coefficient… (More)

—This paper shows how the relative size of components can be used to increase matching performance – saving orders of magnitude in component area. The relative size information can be found by ordering the elements from smallest to largest. A circuit to do this is described. Properties of ordered devices are summarized. Improvements are quantified for… (More)

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