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BACKGROUND The most common measure to compare potencies of volatile anesthetics is minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), although this value describes only a single point on a quantal concentration-response curve and most likely reflects more the effects on the spinal cord rather than on the brain. To obtain more complete concentration-response curves for(More)
BACKGROUND Although voltage-dependent sodium channels have been proposed as possible molecular sites of anesthetic action, they generally are considered too insensitive to be likely molecular targets. However, most previous molecular studies have used peripheral sodium channels as models. To examine the interactions of volatile anesthetics with mammalian(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthesiologists routinely increase the delivered anesthetic concentration before surgical stimulation in anticipation of increased anesthetic requirement to achieve certain goals (e.g., amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility). Electroencephalographic monitoring is one method of determining indirectly anesthetic effect on the brain. The(More)
1. Voltage-dependent sodium channels are important for neuronal signal propagation and integration. 2. Non-mammalian preparations, such as squid giant axon, have sodium channels which have been found to be insensitive to clinical anesthetic concentrations. 3. On the other hand, sodium channels from mammalian neurons are much more sensitive to block by(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have provided evidence that clinical levels of propofol alter the functions of voltage-dependent sodium channels, thereby inhibiting synaptic release of glutamate. However, most of these experiments were conducted in the presence of sodium-channel activators, which alter channel inactivation. This study electrophysiologically(More)
BACKGROUND Approximate entropy, a measure of signal complexity and regularity, quantifies electroencephalogram changes during anesthesia. With increasing doses of anesthetics, burst-suppression patterns occur. Because of the high-frequency bursts, spectrally based parameters such as median electroencephalogram frequency and spectral edge frequency 95 do not(More)
BACKGROUND Molecular theories of general anesthesia often are divided into two categories: (1) Anesthetics may bind specifically to proteins, such as ionic channels, and alter their function directly, and (2) anesthetics may alter the functions of integral membrane proteins indirectly through modification of the physical properties of the membrane. Recent(More)
Fast-track surgery describes innovative treatment concepts ensuring a faster convalescence phase. The aim of this study was to allow hospital discharge 3 days after surgery without additional complications in patients receiving LRPE for localized prostate cancer. Twenty-five patients each were randomized in the study groups to verify if a fast-track regimen(More)
We investigate several quantifiers of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal with respect to their ability to indicate depth of anesthesia. For 17 patients anesthetized with Sevoflurane, three established measures (two spectral and one based on the bispectrum), as well as a phase space based nonlinear correlation index were computed from consecutive EEG(More)
Evidence for a response-control-related kind of declarative memory during deep propofol anesthesia has recently been reported. Connectivity within the mediotemporal lobe (MTL), and in particular rhinal–hippocampal synchronization within the gamma band, has been shown to be crucial for declarative memory formation. Thus, we analyzed EEG recordings obtained(More)