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Auger electrons and characteristic X–rays, collectively named as atomic radiation, are emitted following atomic ionization. Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to its short range in tissue, controlled linear paths, and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Their(More)
Typical photolithography rework process involves a resist wet strip following by a dry descum process. It is found that the de-lamination phenomena correlate to longer descum timing in the rework route. Hypothesis of the de-lamination suggests a change in the surface roughness of TiN after being subjected to descum process. This hypothesis is supported by(More)
Auger electrons and characteristic X-rays, collectively named as atomic radiation, are emitted following atomic ionization. Radioisotopes that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to its short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Their(More)
Nuclear isomers can decay through multiple processes; in many cases the dominant mechanism is internal conversion (IC). This is an excitation of an atomic-electron resulting in ionization and the creation of atomic vacancies. These vacancies are propagated towards the outer-shells by the emission of X-rays and Auger electrons. Auger-electron emission(More)
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