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Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gene expression is controlled by cellular transcription factors and by virally encoded trans-activation proteins of the HIV-1 tat and art/trs genes, which are essential for viral replication. Tat trans-activates HIV-1 gene expression by interacting with the trans-acting response element (TAR) located within the HIV-1(More)
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) contains cyclin T1 (CycT1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9). For activating the expression of eukaryotic genes, the histidine-rich sequence in CycT1 binds the heptapeptide repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), whereupon Cdk9 phosphorylates the CTD. We found that(More)
Hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) is a potent inducer of cell differentiation and HIV production in chronically infected cells. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that HMBA activates transiently the PI3K/Akt pathway, which leads to the phosphorylation of HEXIM1 and the subsequent release of active positive(More)
BACKGROUND The negative factor (Nef) of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV) is required for high levels of viremia and progression to AIDS. Additionally, Nef leads to cellular activation, increased viral infectivity and decreased expression of CD4 on the cell surface. Previously, we and others demonstrated that Nef associates(More)
The stalling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at the promoters of many genes, including developmental regulators, stress-responsive genes, and HIVLTR, suggests transcription elongation as a critical regulatory step in addition to initiation. Spt5, the large subunit of the DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF), represses or activates RNAPII elongation in(More)
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor that induces the expression of a large subset of otherwise strictly tissue restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, thereby enabling their presentation to developing T cells for negative selection. Mutations in AIRE lead to autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy(More)
Genomes of all mammals encode apobec3 genes, which are thought to have a function in intrinsic cellular immunity to several viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are packaged into virions and inhibit retroviral replication in newly infected cells, at least in part by deaminating cytidines on the negative strand(More)
Transcriptional elongation of most eukaryotic genes by RNA polymerase II requires the kinase activity of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). The catalytically active P-TEFb complex becomes inactive when sequestered into the large complex by the cooperative actions of 7SK snRNA and HEXIM1. In this study, we report that HEXIM1 forms(More)
BACKGROUND The primate lentiviruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), encode a conserved accessory gene product, Nef. In vivo, Nef is important for the maintenance of high virus loads and progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult rhesus macaques. In tissue culture cells expressing Nef,(More)
V iruses are intracellular pathogens that are subject to intense selective pressures during their ongoing battles within the host. To propagate successfully, they must exploit numerous machineries of the infected cell. Thus, studies of their replicative cycles have yielded fundamental insights into eukaryotic biology. A prime example is the human immunodefi(More)