B. Matija Peterlin

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The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a cyclin-dependent kinase that controls the elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). This process is made possible by the reversal of effects of negative elongation factors that include NELF and DSIF. In complex organisms, elongation control is critical for the regulated(More)
The HIV accessory protein negative factor (Nef) is one of the earliest and most abundantly expressed viral proteins. It is also found in the serum of infected individuals (Caby MP, Lankar D, Vincendeau-Scherrer C, Raposo G, Bonnerot C. Exosomal-like vesicles are present in human blood plasma. Int Immunol 2005;17:879-887). Extracellular Nef protein has(More)
Recently, APOBEC3G has been identified as a host factor that blocks retroviral replication. It introduces G to A hypermutations in newly synthesized minus strand viral cDNA at the step of reverse transcription in target cells. Here, we identified the human APOBEC3F protein as another host factor that blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)(More)
To stimulate transcriptional elongation of HIV-1 genes, the transactivator Tat recruits the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the initiating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We found that the activation of transcription by RelA also depends on P-TEFb. Similar to Tat, RelA activated transcription when tethered to RNA. Moreover, TNF-alpha(More)
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) contains cyclin T1 (CycT1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9). For activating the expression of eukaryotic genes, the histidine-rich sequence in CycT1 binds the heptapeptide repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), whereupon Cdk9 phosphorylates the CTD. We found that(More)
Flavopiridol (L86-8275, HMR1275) is a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor that is in clinical trials as a cancer treatment because of its antiproliferative properties. We found that the flavonoid potently inhibited transcription by RNA polymerase II in vitro by blocking the transition into productive elongation, a step controlled by P-TEFb. The ability(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in a latent form in infected individuals treated effectively with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In part, these latent proviruses account for the rebound in viral replication observed after treatment interruption. A major therapeutic challenge is to purge this reservoir. In this study, we(More)
The accessory Nef protein of HIV and SIV is essential for viral pathogenesis, yet it is perplexing in its multitude of molecular functions. In this review we analyse the structure-function relationships of motifs recently proposed to play roles in aspects of Nef modification, signalling and trafficking, and thereby to impinge on the ability of the virus to(More)
Nef of primate lentiviruses is critical for high levels of viremia and the progression to AIDS. Nef associates with and activates a serine/threonine kinase (Nef-associated kinase [NAK]) via the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. We identified the protooncogene and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1(More)