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Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to transport hydrophobic chemicals from air to olfactory or taste receptors. They have been isolated from several sensory organs of a wide range of insect species. The x-ray structure of CSPMbraA6, a 112-aa antennal protein from the moth Mamestra brassicae (Mbra), was shown to exhibit a novel type of(More)
Understanding regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression is of considerable interest given that mitochondrial dysfunction is important in human pathology and aging. Similar to the situation in bacteria, there is no compartmentalization between transcription and translation in mitochondria; hence, both processes are likely to have a direct molecular(More)
In mammalian cells, a family of mitochondrial transcription termination factors (MTERFs) regulates mitochondrial gene expression. MTERF family members share a approximately 270 residues long MTERF-domain required for DNA binding and transcription regulation. However, the structure of this widely conserved domain is unknown. Here, we show that the(More)
A single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, transcribes the mitochondrial genome in human cells. Recently, a factor termed as the mitochondrial transcription elongation factor, TEFM, was shown to stimulate transcription elongation in vivo, but its effect in vitro was relatively modest. In the current work, we have isolated active TEFM in recombinant form and(More)
Mitochondrial RNA polymerase produces long polycistronic precursors that contain the mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs needed for mitochondrial translation. Mitochondrial RNase P (mt-RNase P) initiates the maturation of the precursors by cleaving at the 5' ends of the tRNAs. Human mt-RNase P is only active as a tripartite complex (mitochondrial RNase P proteins 1-3;(More)
Mammalian mitochondrial transcription is executed by a single subunit mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Polrmt) and its two accessory factors, mitochondrial transcription factors A and B2 (Tfam and Tfb2m). Polrmt is structurally related to single-subunit phage RNA polymerases, but it also contains a unique N-terminal extension (NTE) of unknown function. We here(More)
A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a(More)
Polyadenylation, performed by poly(A) polymerases (PAPs), is a ubiquitous post-transcriptional modification that plays key roles in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism. Although cytoplasmic and nuclear PAPs have been studied extensively, the mechanism by which mitochondrial PAP (mtPAP) selects adenosine triphosphate over other nucleotides is unknown.(More)
TGF-β signaling regulates cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis through activation of SMAD transcription factors that are in turn modulated by members of the Ski-SnoN family. In this process, Ski has been shown to negatively modulate TGF-β signaling by disrupting active R-SMAD/Co-SMAD heteromers. Here, we show that the(More)
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