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A sustained inflammatory reaction is present in acute (e.g. stroke) and chronic (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis) neurodegenerative disorders. Inflammation, which is fostered by both residential glial cells and blood-circulating cells that infiltrate the diseased brain, probably starts as a time- and site-specific(More)
Post-menopausal estrogen deficiency is recognized to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a number of age-related diseases in women, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and Alzheimer's disease. There are also sexual differences in the progression of diseases associated with the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, such as Parkinson's disease, a(More)
Emerging evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury, but whether astrocytes and microglia activation may exacerbate dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron demise and/or contribute to DAergic repair is presently the subject of(More)
Although many failed surrogate markers are provided in the literature, inflammation may contribute to the outcome of ischemic stroke. In 50 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, in the absence of symptoms and signs of concomitant infection, we evaluated a panel of biomarkers reported to be variably associated with brain ischemia, and correlate(More)
Dopamine-synthesizing (dopaminergic, DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain (VM) constitute a pivotal neuronal population controlling motor behaviors, cognitive and affective brain functions, which generation critically relies on the activation of Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway in their progenitors. In Parkinson's disease, DA cell(More)
Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) causes encephalopathy in severely jaundiced neonates by damaging astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, which help defend the brain against cytotoxic insults, express the ATP-dependent transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1), which mediates export of organic anions, probably including UCB. We therefore studied(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), neurogenesis is impaired in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of postmortem human PD brains, in primate nonhuman and rodent models of PD. The vital role of Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling in the modulation of neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and synaptic plasticity coupled to our recent findings(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Emerging evidence indicates that an inflammatory process is involved in dopaminergic nigro-striatal neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease. We here report that the GR deficiency of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing GR antisense RNA from early(More)
The roles of Wnts in neural development, synaptogenesis, and cancer are generally well characterized. Nonetheless, evidence exists that interactions between the immune and nervous systems control major brain regenerative processes ranging from physiological or pathological (reparative) regeneration to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones play a central role in the bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems and exert, via GC receptors (GR), potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we report that GR deficiency of transgenic mice expressing GR antisense RNA from early embryonic life has a dramatic(More)